Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Alfred Nobel

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine is one of the Nobel Prizes which were created by Alfred Nobel. This award is decided by the Karolinska Institutet, a major medical center in Sweden. The Prize is given every year to a person or persons who have done excellent work in the area of medicine (treating or stopping disease) or physiology (the way the body works).

Nobel Prize winners[change | change source]

1901–1910[change | change source]

Santiago Ramón y Cajal, 1906

1911–1919[change | change source]

Allvar Gullstrand, 1911

1920–1929[change | change source]

Frederick Banting, 1923

1930–1939[change | change source]

Karl Landsteiner, on an Austrian banknote

1940–1949[change | change source]

Alexander Fleming, 1945

1950–1959[change | change source]

Selman Waksman, 1952

1960–1969[change | change source]

Frank Macfarlane Burnet, 1960

1970–1979[change | change source]

David Baltimore, 1975

1980–1989[change | change source]

Sune Bergström, 1982

1990–1999[change | change source]

Ferid Murad, 1998

2000–2009[change | change source]

Luc Montagnier, 2008

2010–2019[change | change source]

References[change | change source]

  1. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1901". Nobel Foundation. http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1901/index.html. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  2. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1902". Nobel Foundation. http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1902/index.html. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  3. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1903". Nobel Foundation. http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1903/index.html. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  4. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1904". Nobel Foundation. http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1904/index.html. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  5. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1905". Nobel Foundation. http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1905/index.html. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  6. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1906". Nobel Foundation. http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1906/index.html. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  7. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1907". Nobel Foundation. http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1907/index.html. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  8. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1908". Nobel Foundation. http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1908/index.html. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  9. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1909". Nobel Foundation. http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1909/index.html. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  10. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1910". Nobel Foundation. http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1910/index.html. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  11. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1911". Nobel Foundation. http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1911/index.html. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  12. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1912". Nobel Foundation. http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1912/index.html. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  13. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1913". Nobel Foundation. http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1913/index.html. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  14. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1914". Nobel Foundation. http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1914/index.html. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  15. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1919". Nobel Foundation. http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1919/index.html. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  16. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1920". Nobel Foundation. http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1920/index.html. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  17. 17.0 17.1 "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1922". Nobel Foundation. http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1922/index.html. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  18. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1923". Nobel Foundation. http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1923/index.html. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  19. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1924". Nobel Foundation. http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1924/index.html. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  20. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1926". Nobel Foundation. http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1926/index.html. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  21. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1927". Nobel Foundation. http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1927/index.html. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  22. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1928". Nobel Foundation. http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1928/index.html. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  23. 23.0 23.1 "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1929". Nobel Foundation. http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1929/index.html. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  24. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1930". Nobel Foundation. http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1930/index.html. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  25. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1931". Nobel Foundation. http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1931/index.html. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  26. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1932". Nobel Foundation. http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1932/index.html. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  27. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1933". Nobel Foundation. http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1933/index.html. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  28. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1934". Nobel Foundation. http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1934/index.html. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  29. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1935". Nobel Foundation. http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1935/index.html. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  30. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1936". Nobel Foundation. http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1936/index.html. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  31. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1937". Nobel Foundation. http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1937/index.html. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  32. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1938". Nobel Foundation. http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1938/index.html. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  33. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1939". Nobel Foundation. http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1939/index.html. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  34. 34.0 34.1 "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1943". Nobel Foundation. http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1943/index.html. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  35. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1944". Nobel Foundation. http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1944/index.html. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  36. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1945". Nobel Foundation. http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1945/index.html. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  37. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1946". Nobel Foundation. http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1946/index.html. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  38. 38.0 38.1 "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1947". Nobel Foundation. http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1947/index.html. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  39. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1948". Nobel Foundation. http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1948/index.html. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  40. 40.0 40.1 "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1949". Nobel Foundation. http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1949/index.html. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  41. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1950". Nobel Foundation. http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1950/index.html. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  42. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1951". Nobel Foundation. http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1951/index.html. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  43. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1952". Nobel Foundation. http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1952/index.html. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  44. 44.0 44.1 "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1953". Nobel Foundation. http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1953/index.html. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  45. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1954". Nobel Foundation. http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1954/index.html. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  46. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1955". Nobel Foundation. http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1955/index.html. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  47. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1956". Nobel Foundation. http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1956/index.html. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  48. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1957". Nobel Foundation. http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1957/index.html. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  49. 49.0 49.1 "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1958". Nobel Foundation. http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1958/index.html. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  50. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1959". Nobel Foundation. http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1959/index.html. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  51. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1960". Nobel Foundation. http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1960/index.html. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  52. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1961". Nobel Foundation. http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1961/index.html. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  53. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1962". Nobel Foundation. http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1962/index.html. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  54. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1963". Nobel Foundation. http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1963/index.html. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  55. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1964". Nobel Foundation. http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1964/index.html. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  56. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1965". Nobel Foundation. http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1965/index.html. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  57. 57.0 57.1 "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1966". Nobel Foundation. http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1966/index.html. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  58. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1967". Nobel Foundation. http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1967/index.html. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  59. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1968". Nobel Foundation. http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1968/index.html. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  60. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1969". Nobel Foundation. http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1969/index.html. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  61. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1970". Nobel Foundation. http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1970/index.html. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  62. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1971". Nobel Foundation. http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1971/index.html. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  63. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1972". Nobel Foundation. http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1972/index.html. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  64. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1973". Nobel Foundation. http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1973/index.html. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  65. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1974". Nobel Foundation. http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1974/index.html. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  66. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1975". Nobel Foundation. http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1975/index.html. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  67. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1976". Nobel Foundation. http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1976/index.html. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  68. 68.0 68.1 "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1977". Nobel Foundation. http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1977/index.html. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  69. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1978". Nobel Foundation. http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1978/index.html. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  70. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1979". Nobel Foundation. http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1979/index.html. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  71. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1980". Nobel Foundation. http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1980/index.html. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  72. 72.0 72.1 "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1981". Nobel Foundation. http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1981/index.html. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  73. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1982". Nobel Foundation. http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1982/index.html. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  74. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1983". Nobel Foundation. http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1983/index.html. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  75. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1984". Nobel Foundation. http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1984/index.html. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  76. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1985". Nobel Foundation. http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1985/index.html. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  77. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1986". Nobel Foundation. http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1986/index.html. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  78. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1987". Nobel Foundation. http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1987/index.html. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  79. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1988". Nobel Foundation. http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1988/index.html. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  80. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1989". Nobel Foundation. http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1989/index.html. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  81. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1990". Nobel Foundation. http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1990/index.html. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  82. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1991". Nobel Foundation. http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1991/index.html. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  83. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1992". Nobel Foundation. http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1992/index.html. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  84. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1993". Nobel Foundation. http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1993/index.html. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  85. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1994". Nobel Foundation. http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1994/index.html. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  86. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1995". Nobel Foundation. http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1995/index.html. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  87. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1996". Nobel Foundation. http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1996/index.html. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  88. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1997". Nobel Foundation. http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1997/index.html. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  89. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1998". Nobel Foundation. http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1998/index.html. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  90. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1999". Nobel Foundation. http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1999/index.html. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  91. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2000". Nobel Foundation. http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/2000/index.html. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  92. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2001". Nobel Foundation. http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/2001/index.html. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  93. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2002". Nobel Foundation. http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/2002/index.html. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  94. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2003". Nobel Foundation. http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/2003/index.html. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  95. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2004". Nobel Foundation. http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/2004/index.html. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  96. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2005". Nobel Foundation. http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/2005/index.html. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  97. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2006". Nobel Foundation. http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/2006/index.html. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  98. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2007". Nobel Foundation. http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/2007/index.html. Retrieved 2007-10-08.
  99. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2008". Nobel Foundation. http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/2008/index.html. Retrieved 2008-10-06.
  100. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2009". Nobel Foundation. http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/2009/. Retrieved 2009-10-09.
  101. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2010". Nobel Foundation. http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/2010/. Retrieved 2010-10-04.
  102. 102.0 102.1 "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2011". Nobel Foundation. http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/2011/. Retrieved 2011-10-03.
  103. "Ralph Steinman Remains Nobel Laureate". The Nobel Foundation. 3 October 2011. http://www.nobelprize.org/press/nobelfoundation/press_releases/2011/steinman.html. Retrieved 4 October 2011.
  104. Sample, Ian (2011-10-03). "Nobel prize to be awarded to dead scientist". The Guardian (London). http://www.guardian.co.uk/science/2011/oct/03/nobel-prize-awarded-dead-scientist. Retrieved October 10, 2011. "The Nobel foundation concluded that the award should stand, saying: "The Nobel prize to Ralph Steinman was made in good faith, based on the assumption that the Nobel laureate was alive.""
  105. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2012". Nobel Foundation. http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/2012/. Retrieved 2012-10-08.