Marie Curie

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Marie Curie

Marie Skłodowska Curie
a 1911 Nobel Prize portrait
Born Maria Salomea Skłodowska
7 November 1867(1867-11-07)
Warsaw, Kingdom of Poland, then part of Russian Empire
Died 4 July 1934(1934-07-04) (aged 66)
Passy, Haute-Savoie, France
Residence Poland, France
Citizenship Poland (by birth)
France (by marriage)
Fields physics, chemistry
Institutions University of Paris
Alma mater University of Paris
ESPCI
Doctoral advisor Gabriel Lippmann
Doctoral students André-Louis Debierne
Óscar Moreno
Marguerite Catherine Perey
Known for radioactivity
polonium
radium
Notable awards Nobel Prize in Physics (1903)
Davy Medal (1903)
Matteucci Medal (1904)
Nobel Prize in Chemistry (1911)
Signature
Notes
She is the only person to win a Nobel Prize in two different sciences.
This person was awarded a Nobel Prize

Marie Skłodowska–Curie (7 November 1867 – 4 July 1934) was a Polish and naturalized-French physicist and chemist who conducted pioneering research on radioactivity. She was also the first woman to win a Nobel Prize.[1] She was the first woman professor at the University of Paris as well as the first person to win two Nobel Prizes.[1] She received their Nobel Prize in physics for her research on spontaneous radiation which was discovered by Henri Becquerel.[2]

Early life[change | edit source]

She was born in Warsaw, Poland. She lived there until she was 24. At the age of twelve, her mother died, and two years earlier, her sister Zofia died. In 1891, she followed her older sister, Bronisława, to study in Paris. In Paris, she got higher degrees. She also did her important scientific work. She founded the Curie Institutes in Paris and Warsaw. Her husband, Pierre Curie, daughter, Irène Joliot-Curie, and son-in-law, Frédéric Joliot-Curie, also won Nobel Prizes.

Physicist career[change | edit source]

Curie did many great things. She created a theory of radioactivity (a term made by her and Pierre), found different ways for separating radioactive isotopes, and discovered two new elements, radium and polonium. It was also under her own direction that the world's first studies were used into the treatment of cancers. These treatments used the radioactive isotopes.

Personal life[change | edit source]

While being a French citizen, she never lost her Polish identity. She named the first new chemical element that she discovered (1898) "polonium". This was named after her home country, Poland. In 1932, she founded a radium institute in her home town, Warsaw. It was run by her sister, Bronisława.

Death[change | edit source]

Curie died of aplastic anemia.

References[change | edit source]

  1. 1.0 1.1 Ament, Phil (1997 - 2007). "Marie Curie". The Great Idea Finder. http://www.ideafinder.com/history/inventors/curie.htm. Retrieved 2010-04-20.
  2. "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1903". nobelprize.org. 2011. http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/physics/laureates/1903/. Retrieved 23 March 2011.

Other websites[change | edit source]