John Smith (explorer)
John Smith (c. January 1580 – 21 June 1631) Admiral of New England was an English soldier, explorer, and author. He was knighted for his services to Sigismund Bathory, Prince of Transylvania and his friend Mózes Székely. He was considered to have played an important part in the first permanent English colonial settlement in North America. He was a leader of the Colony of Virginia (based at Jamestown) between September 1608 and August 1609, and explored along the rivers of Virginia and the Chesapeake Bay. He was the first English explorer to draw a map of the Chesapeake Bay area and New England.
Smith's books and maps were considered very important in encouraging and supporting Englishmen living in the New World. He gave the name New England to that region and encouraged people to come to the area by writing, "Here every man may be master and owner of his owne labour and land... If he have nothing but his hands, he may...by industrie quickly grow rich."
When Jamestown was England’s first permanent settlement in the New World, Smith trained the settlers to farm and work, thereby saving the colony from starvation and early ruin. He publicly stated "he who shall not work, shall not eat." This strength of character and determination overcame problems presented from hostile Indians, the wilderness and the troublesome and some uncooperative English settlers. Harsh weather, lack of water, living in a swampy wilderness, English unwillingness to work, and attacks from the Powhatan Indian Nation almost destroyed the colony.
Smith is buried in the church of St Sepulchre-without-Newgate, the largest parish church in the City of London, where there is a beautiful window designed by Francis Skeat which was installed in 1968.
John Smith was baptised on 6 January 1580 at Willoughby, Lincolnshire near Alford, Lincolnshire, where his parents rented a farm from Peregrine, 13th Baron Willoughby de Eresby. He claimed descent from the ancient Smith family of Cuerdley Lancashire and was educated at King Edward VI Grammar School, Louth, from 1592–1595.
After his father died, Smith left home at the age of sixteen and set off to sea. He served as a soldier in the army of Henry IV of France against the Spaniards, fought for Dutch revolt from the Spanish King Philip II of Spain, then left to go to the Mediterranean Sea. There he worked in both trade and piracy, and later fought against the Ottoman Empire in the Long War (Ottoman wars). Smith was promoted to captain while fighting for the Austrian Habsburgs in Kingdom of Hungary, in the campaign of Michael the Brave in 1600 and 1601. After the death of Michael the Brave, he fought for Radu Şerban in Wallachia against the Ottoman vassal Ieremia Movilă.
Smith is reputed to have defeated, killed and beheaded Turkish commanders in three duels, for which he was knighted by the Transylvanian Prince Sigismund Báthory and given a horse and coat of Arms showing three Turks' heads. However, in 1602 he was wounded in a skirmish with the Crimean Khanate, captured and sold as a slave. As Smith describes it: "we all sold for slaves, like beasts in a market." Smith claimed his master, a Turkish nobleman, sent him as a gift to his Greek mistress in Constantinople, who fell in love with Smith. He then was taken to the Crimea, from where he escaped from the Ottoman lands into Muscovy then on to the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, before travelling through Europe and Northern Africa, returning to England in 1604.
In 1606 the adventurer and soldier Captain John Smith became involved with the Virginia Company plans to colonise the Colony of Virginia for profit; it had been granted a charter by James I of England. The expedition set sail in three small ships, the Discovery, the Susan Constant and the Godspeed, on 20 December 1606. His (servant) was a 12-year-old boy named Samuel Collier.
During the voyage, Smith was charged with mutiny, and Captain Christopher Newport (in charge of the three ships) had planned to execute him. Fortunately for Smith, upon first landing at what is now Cape Henry on 26 April 1607, opened a letter of sealed orders from the Virginia Company which stated that Smith was to be one of the leaders of the new colony, thus, perhaps, sparing Smith from being killed.
The English arrived at Jamestown in April 1607 and, by summer of that year, the settlers were still living in temporary housing. The search for a good site to live ended on 14 May 1607, when Captain Edward Maria Wingfield, president of the council, chose the Jamestown, Virginia site as the location for the colony. After the four-month ocean trip, their food supplies were only enough for each person to have a cup or two of grain-meal per day. Due to swampy conditions and widespread disease, someone died almost every day. By September, more than 60 were dead of the 104 brought by Newport. The men may well have died from drinking brackish creek water and from poor nutrition.
In early January 1608, nearly 100 new settlers arrived with Captain Newport, and through carelessness the village was set on fire. That winter the James River froze over, and the settlers were forced to live in the burnt ruins. During this time, for the three months that Newport and his crew were in port, they wasted much time loading their ships with iron pyrite (fool's gold). Food supplies ran low and although Indians brought some food, Smith wrote that “more than half of us died.”
In April 1608 a ship brought supplies and 50 new settlers, whom Smith set to build housing and do plant crops. He spent that summer exploring Chesapeake Bay waterways and produced a map that would be of great value to Virginia explorers for over a century.
In October 1608, Captain Newport arrived with 70 new settlers, including the first women. Some German and Polish craftsmen also arrived, but they brought no food supplies. Newport brought with him a list of false Virginia Company orders which angered John Smith greatly. He wrote an angry letter in response. One of the orders was to crown Powhatan Emperor. The Company wanted Smith to pay for Newport’s voyage with such as the colony could produce in the form of pitch, tar and sawed boards and soap ashes and glass.
After that, Smith tried to get food from the Indians and it took threats of military force against the Indians for them to comply. Powhatan was frightened by the great number of white men coming into the area and was trying to starve them out.
Smith found that there were those among both the settlers and Indians who were planning to kill him, and it is written he was warned about the plan by Pocahontas. He called a meeting and threatened those who were spoiled and not working “that he that will not work shall not eat…” After that the situation improved and the settlers worked with more industry, along with some punishments as needed. 
For three months in early 1609, February, March and April all was well at Jamestown with many dwellings built, acres of land cleared and much other work done. Then in April, rats and dampness destroyed all their stored corn. They needed food badly and Smith sent a large group of settlers to fish and others to gather shellfish downriver. They came back without food and were willing enough to take the meager rations offered them. This angered Smith and he ordered them to trade their guns and tools for fruit from the Indians and ordered everyone to work or they would have to leave the safety of the fort.
By that time, some settlers wanted Smith to leave Jamestown but he refused. Some left and went to the Native American villages, but Powhatan’s people also went by Smith’s law which was: “he who works not, eats not”. This was in effect “till they were near starved indeed” and they returned home.
At some point an unexpected ship arrived, captained by Samuel Argall. He had food and wine which Smith bought with a promise to pay back. Argall also brought news that the (South) Virginia Company of London was sending more supplies and settlers to Jamestown along with a new governor, Lord De la Warr.
In a May 1609 voyage to Virginia, Sir Thomas Smith, Virginia Company treasurer, arranged for about 500 colonists, including women and children to come along. A fleet of nine ships set sail. One sank in a storm soon after leaving the harbor and another, the [[Sea Venture, with the flotilla admiral and Stephen Hopkins on board, wrecked on the Bermuda Islands. One year later, in May 1610, after building boats to take all the passengers and crew of the Sea Venture off Bermuda, they finally made their way to Jamestown with the new Governor, Thomas Gates, on board.
In August 1609 John Smith was quite surprised to see more than 300 new settlers arrive, which did not go well for him. London was sending new settlers with no real planning as to how or where they would live.
Then in May 1610, Gates with 150 men finally arrived after spending almost a year trying to escape from Bermuda, by building small boats from their wrecked ship. Gates soon found that there was not enough food to support all in the colony and decided to abandon Jamestown. As their boats were leaving the Jamestown area, they met a ship carrying the new governor, Lord De la Warr, who ordered them back to Jamestown.
It is also recorded that Capt. John Smith was severely injured by an accidental gunpowder explosion in his canoe which decided his fate for him; he sailed to England for treatment in October 1609. He had spent two and a half years trying to do his best for Jamestown. He never returned to Virginia. History has confirmed his outstanding contribution to the English effort at Jamestown in its earliest years.
Colonists would continue to die from various illnesses and disease, with an estimated 150 of the 500 surviving that winter. In spite of this, the Virginia Company continued to finance and transport settlers to sustain Jamestown. For the next five years, Governors Gates and Sir Thomas Dale continued to keep strict discipline, with Sir Thomas Smith in London attempting to find skilled craftsmen and other settlers to send to Jamestown.
Encounter with Pocahontas' tribe[change]
In December 1607, while seeking food along the Chickahominy River, Smith was captured and taken to meet the Indian Chief of the Powhatan at Werowocomoco, the main village of the Powhatan Confederacy, a group of Indians under one leader. The village was on the north shore of the York River (Virginia)|York River]] about 15 miles due north of Jamestown and 25 miles downstream from where the river forms from the Pamunkey River and the Mattaponi River at West Point, Virginia. Although he feared for his life, Smith was eventually released without harm and later attributed this in part to the chief's daughter, Pocahontas, who according to Smith, threw herself across his body: "at the minute of my execution, she hazarded [i.e. risked] the beating out of her own brains to save mine; and not only that, but so prevailed with her father, that I was safely conducted to Jamestown".
In 1860 Boston businessman and historian Charles Deane was the first scholar to question some of Smith's writings. Smith's version of events is the only source and they are questions about its truthfulness. One reason for such doubt is that, despite having published two earlier books about Virginia, Smith's earliest-surviving account of his rescue by Pocahontas dates from 1616, nearly 10 years later, in a letter asking Queen Anne of Denmark to treat Pocahontas with dignity. The time gap in publishing his story raises the possibility that Smith may have exaggerated or invented the event to enhance Pocahontas's image. However, in a recent book, Professor J. A. Leo Lemay of the University of Delaware points out that Smith's earlier writing was primarily geographical in nature and did not spend much time on his personal experiences; so there was no reason for him to write down the story until this point.
Henry Brooks Adams, a Harvard historian of the second half of the 19th century, attempted to prove that Smith was not a hero. He said that Smith’s telling of the story of Pocahontas had been made up of “falsehoods of and bragging.” Although there is agreement among historians that Smith tended to exaggerate, his account does seem to be true with the basic facts of his life. Adams' attack on Smith, was motivated by personal gain but the truthfulness of Smith’s accounts has continued to be a subject of debate over the centuries.
Some experts have suggested that although Smith believed he had been rescued by Pocahontas, he had in fact been involved in a ritual intended to symbolize his death and rebirth as a member of the tribe. In Love and Hate in Jamestown, David A. Price notes that this is only guesswork, since little is known of Powhatan rituals, and there is no evidence for this in other Native American tribes in North America.
In True Travels (1630), Smith told a similar story of having been rescued by the intervention of a young girl after having been captured in 1602 by Ottoman Empire in Hungary. Karen Kupperman suggests that he "presented those remembered events from decades earlier" when telling the story of Pocahontas.
Whatever really happened, the encounter initiated a friendly relationship between the natives and Smith and the colonists at Jamestown. As the colonists expanded further, some of the tribes felt that their lands were threatened, and conflicts arose again.
In 1608, Pocahontas is said to have saved Smith a second time. Smith and some other colonists were invited to Werowocomoco by Chief Powhatan on friendly terms, but Pocahontas came to the hut where the English were staying and warned them that Powhatan was planning to kill them. Due to this warning, the English stayed on their guard and the attack never came.
Smith's explorations of Chesapeake Bay[change]
In the summer of 1608, Smith left Jamestown to explore the Chesapeake Bay region and search for badly needed food, covering an estimated 3,000 miles. These explorations have been marked in the Captain John Smith Chesapeake National Historic Trail, established in 2006. In his absence, Smith left his friend Matthew Scrivener, a young gentleman adventurer from Sibton, Suffolk, who was related by marriage to the Wingfield family, as governor in his place. (Scrivener would later drown along with Bartholomew Gosnold's brother in an ill-fated voyage to Hog Island during a storm.) Scrivener was not capable of leading the people. Smith was elected president of the local council in September 1608 and instituted a policy of discipline.
In 1614, Smith returned to the Americas in a voyage to the coasts of Maine and Massachusetts. He named the region "New England". He made two attempts in 1614 and 1615 to return to the same coast. On the first trip, a storm dismasted his ship. In the second attempt, he was captured by French pirates off the coast of the Azore Islands. Smith escaped after weeks of captivity and made his way back to England, where he published an account of his two voyages as A Description of New England. He never left England again. He died in the year 1631 in London at the age of 51.
John Smith Monument, New Hampshire[change]
The Captain John Smith Monument currently lies in need of repair off the coast of New Hampshire on Star Island, part of the Isles of Shoals. Built in 1864 to honor the 250th anniversary of John Smith's visit to what he named Smith's Isles, the original monument was a tall pillar set on a triangular base atop a series of steps surrounded by granite supports and a sturdy iron railing.
In 1914, the New Hampshire Society of Colonial Wars partially restored and rededicated the monument for the 300th anniversary celebration of his historic visit. The monument had weathered so badly in the harsh coastal winters that the words carved in the granite had worn away.
Many people judge Captain John Smith’s character and truthfulness as an author based on one event, his description of when Pocahontas saved his life from the hand of Powhatan. Smith earned being an American hero through his belief in strong work and his ability to get along with the Indians, these things are often said in his writings such as The Generall Historie of Virginia and The True Travels…of Captain John Smith. Some people state that his writing do not always say the same thing in his writings. His earliest text is A True Relation of Virginia, which was prionted in 1608, the year after Smith’s experiences in Jamestown. The second, The Generall Historie, was printed in 1624, sixteen years later. Compared to The Generall Historie, many events, including the Pocahontas scene, are either left out or changed. Accordingly, the publishing of letters, journals, and booklets from the colonists were controlled by the companies that paid for the voyage in that they must go “directly to the company,” because no one was to “write any letter of anything that may discourage others.” Smith is now known to have violated this regulation by first publishing A True Relation as an unknown author. Furthermore, the editor of The Generall Historie probably “cut out…references to the Indians’ dislike of the settlers, to bickering among the leaders of Virginia Company, and to the early supposed mutiny of…Smith on the voyage to Virginia.”
The story about Pocahontas was disbelieved by some people because it was not in Smith's earlier writings A True Relation, but is mentioned in The Generall Historie. According to Lemay, it is probable that “Smith was being put through a ritual and was not really going to be killed. After the ceremony, they said, he would have been adopted into the tribe, with Pocahontas as his sponsor. The think that Smith, did not realise the nature of the initiation ceremony and thought he really was going to be killed by the Indians.” Also important evidence to Smith’s credibility regarding the story is the fact that “no one in Smith’s day ever expressed doubt in [it], and many persons who must have known the truth…including John Rolfe [and] Pocahontas…were in London in 1616 when Smith publicised the story in a letter to the queen.”
Smith focuses heavily on American Indians in all of his works concerning the New World. Smith’s relationship with the Powhatan Indians is the sone factor that saved the Jamestown colony from starvation and being killed as was the result of the Roanoke colony. His relations with the Indians were very wise in that:
He was friendly toward them, but never let them forget the might of English weapons… Realizing that the very existence of the colony depended on peace, he never thought of trying to exterminate the natives. Only after his departure were there bitter wars and massacres, the natural results of a more hostile policy. In his writings, Smith reveals the attitudes behind his actions.
However, in The Generall Historie, Smith states that the Virginia colonists did not like the Indians and the two peoples had mostly angry feelings towards each other. He compares Chief Powhatan to the devil, and refers to the Indians as “savages.” Numerous times, he mentions sending spies to discover the Chief’s real plans and declining Powhatan’s request to give up their arms. He also stresses the many times where the Indians threatened and attempted to kill him. However, Lemay contests Smith’s depiction of the relations between colonists and Indians: “[He] was not only fair, he was surprisingly kind and good. He treated the Indians as he treated whites, he tortured [none], executed none, and saved Indians when others wanted to slay them.” Smith’s own past as a commoner allowed him to sympathise with the Indians, and he believed that the Indians were not inferior to the whites but just “at a different stage of civilisation.” The respect between Smith and the Powhatan earned him the title of a werowance, “a chieftain among the whites.” The relationship between Smith and Chief Powhatan is further evidence of the understanding between these two cultures. In The Generall Historie, Smith addresses a number of letters sent back and forth between him and Powhatan show the respect that existed between them: “Half a dozen years after Smith had left Virginia—and after the whites had repeatedly assured Powhatan that Smith was dead—[the] leader instructed his advisor… [and] Pocahontas to look for Smith in England;” judging from his directions, the Chief seems to have been deeply affected by Smith’s rumoured death. This is another indication of the positive relationship held between colonists and Indians: if their associations were as Smith depicted them in The Generall Historie, Powhatan would not have been much concerned about his absence or death.
Concerning his relationship with the colonists, Smith is considered to have bragged about his friendship with them. On many accounts, he said that he thought the colonists were worthless; most of them were wealthy men who felt no need to do physical work. If they were going to survive these men must also work and that made the men angry. Smith was also upset that the colonists took so long to make a decision. Smith’s anger with the “gentlemen” of Jamestown was clear: he makes several references to them as “useless parasites,” for their ignorance in the hard work that was required for beginning a colony. His frustration with them did not end at their inability to work, but also extended to the social order that they believed they were entitled to. The colonists, accustomed to the social order of England, rejected the social construct that Smith created in Jamestown. They were upset that they were made equal to all of the other people. Smith mentions several times in his works that having actual workers would have been better than what the Virginia Company sent over: “twentie good workmen had been better than all them all.” In Smith’s hopes to better colonise the Americas, he urges to the Massachusetts Bay Company not to make the same mistake that the Virginia Company made: “…nor such multitude of Officers, neither masters, gentlemen, gentlewomen and children as you have men to work, which idle charges you will find very troublesome, and the effects dangerous, and one hundred good labourers better than a thousand such Gallants as we were sent me that could do nothing.”
In reality, Smith was discontent with only a few colonists who acted this way: he “claimed the early colonists were heroes. His primary purpose in writing The Generall Historie…was to eternalise ‘the memory of those that effected’ the settlement of Virginia.” In Smith’s publication, A Description of New England (1616), he goes so far as to compare the colonists to Adam and Eve; just as Adam and Eve spread productivity throughout the world, the colonists created life in the Virginia colony. Smith essentially sympathised with gentlemen; he knew it was not their fault they were useless and that this trait was merely a product of the imposed standards of English society. He recognised that “they were imprisoned by their own self-imposed limitations. What they could and could not do was decided by their awareness of traditional roles and by the shame that they would feel if others saw them engaged in physical work.” Lemay speculates that as a result of Smith’s strict rules and the emigration to America, these men could shed these roles and create new lives for themselves in which they could celebrate the products of their labours and not feel humiliated.
Promoter of American colonisation[change]
One of John Smith’s main incentives in writing about his New World experiences and observances was to promote the colonisation of The New World by England. Many promotional writers sugar-coated their depictions of America in order to heighten its appeal, but Smith was not one to exaggerate the facts. He was very straightforward with his readers about both the dangers and the possibilities of colonisation: instead of proclaiming that there was an abundance of gold in the New World—as many writers did—Smith illustrated that what was truly abundant within America was monetary opportunity in the form of industry. Smith was realistic about his proposition for colonisation and the benefits that it could yield. He recognised that no “other motive [besides] wealth…would draw [potential colonists] from their ease and humours at home.” Therefore, he presented in his writings actual industries that could yield significant capital within the New World: fishing, farming, shipbuilding, and fur trading.” In A Description of New England, Smith illustrates America as an ideal environment for such trades and enumerates the monetary benefits that they would bring. Rather than making false promises of abounding gold to his readers, Smith attempted to attract interest for colonisation by depicting the opportunities that fertile soil and abundant resources would bring. He insists, however, that only hard workers will be able to reap such benefits. Just as Smith did not exaggerate the possibilities for wealth within America, he did not understate the dangers and toil associated with colonisation. He declared that only those with a strong work ethic would be able to “live and succeed in America” in the face of such dangers. Colonists would have to risk their lives in order to benefit from the “phenomenal possibilities” that the New World offered. As a promoter of American colonisation, Smith did not placate his readers: he wished for potential colonists to be aware of the dangers that they faced, the work that colonisation would require, and the benefits that they stood to gain.
A Map of Virginia is mainly about things that Smith learned about the Indians, particularly regarding their religion and government. This specific focus would have been Smith’s way of adapting to the new world by taking as his own the best parts of their culture and making them a part of the colony. A Map of Virginia was not just a booklet discussing what Smith saw, but also a map which Smith had drawn himself, to help make the Americas seem more domestic, and advanced Smith’s central theme of encouraging the settlement of America. Many doubter have made the argument that Smith’s maps weren’t reliable because he “lacked a formal education in map making.” That statement was proved false by the fact that Smith learned a great deal about the proper way to do things that were important to him.
The Proceedings of English Colonie In Virginia was a compilation of other writings; it tells the colony’s history from Dec. 1609 to summer 1610. Smith left the colony in Oct. 1609 due to a gunpowder accident. The writing style of The Proceedings is thought to be better than A Map of Virginia.
- A True Relation of Such Occurrences and Accidents of Note as Happened in Virginia (1608)
- A Map of Virginia (1612)
- The Proceedings of the English Colony in Virginia (1612)
- A Description of New England (1616)
- New England's Trials (1620, 1622)
- The Generall Historie of Virginia, New-England, and the Summer Isles (1624)
- An Accidence, or the Pathway to Experience Necessary for all Young Seamen (1626)
- A Sea Grammar (1627) – the first sailors' word book in English
- The True Travels, Adventures and Observations of Captain John Smith (1630)
- Advertisements for the Unexperienced Planters of New England, or Anywhere (1631)
- David Cressy (1987). "Coming Over: Migration and Communication Between England and New England in the Seventeenth Century". p. 99. Cambridge University Press,
- Snell 1974, Ch. 4.
- "The John Smith Window". St. Sepulchre-without-Newgate. http://web.me.com/a.earis/stsepulchre.htm. Retrieved 22 December 2010.
- Lefroy, John Henry (1882), The Historye of the Bermudaes Or Summer Islands, Hakluyt Society, p. iv, http://books.google.com/books?id=of86AAAAIAAJ&dq=%22John+Smith%22+was+baptized+%22January+1580%22&source=gbs_summary_s&cad=0, retrieved 21 September 2008
- Churton, Ralph, The lives of William Smyth, Bishop of Lincoln, and Sir Richard Sutton (1800), p. 5
- "History of the School". King Edward VI Grammar School, Louth. http://www.kevigs.lincs.sch.uk/?sid=440&pgid=466&spgid=&page=1. Retrieved 21 June 2008.
- Not Just Another John Smith, usnews.com, 21 January 2007
- Soldier of Fortune: John Smith before Jamestown
- A True Relation of Such Occurrences and Accidents of Note as Happened in Virginia (1608)], EText, University of Virginia
- Snell 1974, Ch. 4.
- Snell 1974, Ch. 4.
- To Conquer is To Live: The Life of Captain John Smith of Jamestown, Kieran Doherty, Twenty-first Century Books, 2001
- Tee Loftin Snell. The Wild Shores: America’s Beginnings. National Geographic Society. (c. 1973 NGS) Chpt. 4 p. 85
- Tee Loftin Snell. The Wild Shores: America’s Beginnings. National Geographic Society. (c. 1974 NGS) Chpt. 4 P. 85
- Tee Loftin Snell. The Wild Shores: America’s Beginnings. National Geographic Society. (c. 1974 NGS) Chpt. 4
- Tee Loftin Snell. The Wild Shores: America’s Beginnings. National Geographic Society. (c. 1974 NGC) Chpt. 4 p. 85
- Tee Loftin Snell. The Wild Shores: America’s Beginnings. National Geographic Society. (c. 1974 NGS) Chpt. 4 p. 91
- Tee Loftin Snell. The Wild Shores: America’s Beginnings. National Geographic Society. (c. 1974 NGS) Chpt. 4 p. 93-94
- Smith, Generall Historie
- Smith. Letter to Queen Anne.
- Lemay. Did Pocahontas, p. 25. Lemay's other arguments in favour of Smith are summarized in Birchfield, 'Did Pocahontas'.
- Lepore, Jill, "The New Yorker", April 2, 2007, p. 40-45
- Gleach, Powhatan's World, pp. 118–21.; Kupperman, Indians and English, pp. 114, 174.
- Horwitz, Tony. A Voyage Long and Strange: Rediscovering the New World. Henry Holt and Co.. pp. 336. ISBN 0-8050-7603-4.
- p. 243-44
- Karen Ordahl Kupperman, The Jamestown Project, Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2007, 51–60, 125–6
- Symonds, Proceedings, pp. 251–2; Smith, Generall Historie, pp. 198–9, 259.
- James Pula. Jamestown's 400th Anniversary./
- New England. (2006). In Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 20 June 2006, from Encyclopædia Britannica Premium Service: 
- J. Dennis Robinson The Ugliest Monument in New England
- Robinson. John Smith Memorial Photo History
- Lemay, J.A. Leo. The American Dream of Captain John Smith. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1991. p. 40
- Lemay, J.A. Leo. The American Dream of Captain John Smith. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1991. p.41
- Lemay, J.A. Leo. The American Dream of Captain John Smith. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1991. p. 52
- Lemay, J.A. Leo. The American Dream of Captain John Smith. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1991. p.51
- Randel, William. "Captain John Smith's Attitudes toward the Indians." The Virginia Magazine of History and Biography (1939): 218–229. p.219
- Smith, John. "The Generall Historie of Virginia, New-England, and the Summer Isles." The Heath Anthology of American Literature. Ed. Paul Lauter. 6th Edition. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company, 2009 . 276–281. p.277
- Lemay, J.A. Leo. The American Dream of Captain John Smith. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1991. p.116
- Lemay, J.A. Leo. The American Dream of Captain John Smith. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1991. p.224
- Lemay, J.A. Leo. The American Dream of Captain John Smith. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1991. p.116
- Lemay, J.A. Leo. The American Dream of Captain John Smith. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1991. p.146
- Lemay, J.A. Leo. The American Dream of Captain John Smith. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1991. p.170
- Lemay, J.A. Leo. The American Dream of Captain John Smith. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1991. p.173
- Lemay, J.A. Leo. The American Dream of Captain John Smith. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1991. p.26
- Lemay, J. A. Leo. The American Dream of Captain John Smith. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1991. p.27
- Lemay, J.A. Leo. The American Dream of Captain John Smith. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1991. p.80
- Smith, John. "A Description of New England." The Heath Anthology of American Literature. Ed. Paul Lauter. 6th Edition. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company, 2009 . p. 282
- Lemay, J.A. Leo. The American Dream of Captain John Smith. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1991. p.91
- Lemay, J.A. Leo. The American Dream of Captain John Smith. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1991. p.81
- Lemay, J.A. Leo. The American Dream of Captain John Smith. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1991. p.42
- Lemay, J.A. Leo. The American Dream of Captain John Smith. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1991. p.43
- Lemay, J.A. Leo. The American Dream of Captain John Smith. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1991. p.48
- Snell, T Loftin (1974). The wild shores: America's beginnings. Washington DC: National Geographic Society (U.S.), Special Publications Division.
- Woolley, Benjamin. Savage Kingdom, The True Story of Jamestown, 1607, and the Settlement of America, First Harper Perennial Edition Published 2008
- Horn, James, ed. Captain John Smith, Writings, with Other Narratives of Roanoke, Jamestown, and the English Settlement of America (Library of America, 2007) ISBN 978-1-59853-001-8.
- Philip L. Barbour, The Jamestown Voyages under the First Charter, 1606–1609, 2 vols., Publications of the Hakluyt Society, ser.2, 136–37 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1969)
- A. Bryant Nichols Jr., Captain Christopher Newport: Admiral of Virginia, Sea Venture, 2007
- Philip L. Barbour, The Three Worlds of Captain John Smith (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1964)
- Gleach, Frederic W. Powhatan's World and Colonial Virginia. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1997.
- Dorothy Hoobler and Thomas Hoobler, Captain John Smith: Jamestown and the Birth of the American Dream (Hoboken, N.J.: John Wiley & Sons, 2006)
- Horn, James. A Land as God Made It: Jamestown and the Birth of America (New York: Basic Books, 2005)
- Jenks, Tudor. Captain John Smith (New York: Century Co., 1904)
- Kupperman, Karen Ordahl ed., John Smith: A Select Edition of His Writings (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1988)
- Price, David A., Love and Hate in Jamestown: John Smith, Pocahontas, and the Heart of a New Nation (New York: Knopf, 2003)
- Lemay, J.A. Leo. Did Pocahontas Save Captain John Smith? Athens, Georgia: The University of Georgia Press, 1992, p. 25.
- Giles Milton, Big Chief Elizabeth: The Adventures and Fate of the First English Colonists in America, Macmillan, New York, 2001
- John Smith, The Complete Works of Captain John Smith (1580–1631) in Three Volumes, edited by Philip L. Barbour, 3 vols. (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press for The Institute of Early American History and Culture, Williamsburg, 1986)
- Smith, John. The Generall Historie of Virginia, New-England, and the Summer Isles. 1624. Repr. in Jamestown Narratives, ed. Edward Wright Haile. Champlain, VA: Roundhouse, 1998. pp. 198–9, 259.
- Smith, John. Letter to Queen Anne. 1616. Repr. as 'John Smith's Letter to Queen Anne regarding Pocahontas'. Caleb Johnson's Mayflower Web Pages. 1997. Accessed 23 April 2006.
- Symonds, William. The Proceedings of the English Colonie in Virginia. 1612. Repr. in The Complete Works of Captain John Smith. Ed. Philip L. Barbour. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1986. Vol. 1, pp. 251–2
- Charles Dudley Warner|Warner, Charles Dudley, Captain John Smith, 1881. Repr. in Captain John Smith Project Gutenberg Text, accessed 4 July 2006
|Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: John Smith (explorer)|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Captain John Smith|
- Captain John Smith Chesapeake National Historic Trail Official Website
- Friends of the John Smith Trail
- NGS Then and Now – John Smith
- John Smith Water Trail Blog
- The Captain John Smith Water Trail
- A Description of New England (1616) online text (PDF)
- The Ugliest Monument in New England (seacoastnh.com)
- The Ugliest Monument in New England II
- John Smith Memorial Photo History
- Captain John Smith Chesapeake NHT is administered by the Chesapeake Bay Gateways and Watertrails Network
- Complete text of the Generall Historie American Memory
- Texts of Imagination & Empire, by Emily Rose, Princeton University Folger Shakespeare Library
- Captain John Smith His Life and Legend