Johor

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Johor
State
Johor Darul Takzim

Flag

Coat of arms
Motto: Kepada Allah Berserah
كڤدالله برسراه
(To Allah We Surrender)
Anthem: Lagu Bangsa Johor
لاڬو بڠسا جوهر
(Johor State Anthem)
   Johor in    Malaysia
Coordinates: 1°29′14″N 103°46′52″E / 1.48722°N 103.78111°E / 1.48722; 103.78111Coordinates: 1°29′14″N 103°46′52″E / 1.48722°N 103.78111°E / 1.48722; 103.78111
Johor Sultanate 14th century
British control 1914
Japanese occupation 31 January 1942
Accession into Federation of Malaya 1948
Independence as part of Federation of Malaya 31 August 1957
Capital Johor Bahru[a]
Royal capital Muar (Bandar Maharani)
Government
 • Sultan Sultan Ibrahim Ismail
 • Menteri Besar Mohamed Khaled Nordin (BN)
Area[1]
 • Total 19,210 km2 (7,420 sq mi)
Population (2010)[2]
 • Total 3,348,283
 • Density 174/km2 (450/sq mi)
 • Demonym Johorean / Johorian
Human Development Index
 • HDI (2010) 0.733 (high) (6th)
Postal code 79xxx to 86xxx
Calling code 07[b]
06 (Muar and Ledang)
Vehicle registration J

^[a] Kota Iskandar is a state administrative centre
^[b]  Except Muar and Ledang

Johor (last time known as Johore, Jawi script: جوهر) is a state of Malaysia between 1°20"N and 2°35"N. It is one of the most developed states in Malaysia. The capital city and royal seat of Johor is Johor Bahru, once known as Tanjung Puteri. The old state capital is Johor Lama. The Arabic honorific of the state is Darul Ta'zim ("Abode of Dignity'). Johor is surrounded by Pahang to the north, Malacca and Negeri Sembilan to the northwest, and the Straits of Johor to the south which is divided by the international border between Malaysia and the Republic of Singapore. Tanjung Piai, in the district of Pontian, is the most southerly point of mainland Asia.

Singaporeans and Johoreans often use the word JB to refer to the city of Johor Bahru.

History[change | edit source]

The name "Johor" came from the Arabic word Jauhar, 'gem/precious stone' . Before the name Johor was taken up, the area south of the Muar River to Singapore island was known as Ujung Tanah or 'land's end' in Malay, due to its location at the end of the Malay Peninsula. Coincidentally, Johor is the most southerly point of the Asian continental mainland.

Transportation centres[change | edit source]

Ports[change | edit source]

Johor has three ports: Pasir Gudang Port, Port of Tanjung Pelepas and Tanjung Langsat Port.

Airports[change | edit source]

Johor has one international airport (30 km away from the city centre), The Sultan Ismail International Airport in Senai (01’38’26’ N, 103’40’13’ E). It was opened on 6 June 1974 and has been expanded several times ever since. Currently, it has a 5 million passenger capacity with parallel taxiway under construction.

The airport is also a regional hub of AirAsia, a regional low-cost no-frills airline. Malaysia Airlines also operate flights from Senai airport to some local and international destinations.

Government structure of Johor[change | edit source]

Monarchy[change | edit source]

Johor is a constitutional monarchy. It was the first state in Malaysia which adopted the constitutional monarchy system, and its laws are stated in Undang-undang Tubuh Negeri Johor (Johor State Establishment Constitution), written by Sultan Abu Bakar. The constitutional head of Johor is the Sultan. This position can only be passed down and held by a member of the Johor Royal Family, who is descended from Sultan Abu Bakar. The State's Sultan since 1981 has been Sultan Iskandar Al-Haj.

Johor was the first state and currently the only state in Malaysia that has its own military force called Johor Military Force or 'Timbalan Setia Negeri'. It is a private army of the Sultan of Johor paid by the state government.

State government[change | edit source]

Districts of Johor.PNG

The state government is led by the Chief Minister or Menteri Besar. The current Chief Minister is Dato' Abdul Ghani Othman, a former civil servant. The Chief Minister is assisted by an executive council (exco), whose members are selected from the state assembly members.

The legislative branch of Johor's government is the Johor State Assembly. The state assembly makes laws in matters on the state. Members of the assembly are elected every five years in an election.

Places of interest[change | edit source]

Major tourist attractions[change | edit source]

Among the popular tourist destinations in Johor are:

  1. Desaru - beaches & golf courses along the South China Sea
  2. Johor Bahru - shopping, night market, colonial/royal district
  3. Endau Rompin National Park - pristine jungle
  4. Kota Tinggi 34 meter waterfall.
  5. Kukup - a fishing village with seafood restaurants built over water
  6. Muar - picturesque riverside town
  7. Seribuat Archipelago - islands with beautiful beaches, coral reefs
  8. Tanjung Piai - the southernmost tip of mainland Asia
  9. Danga Bay - The new waterfront city
  10. Pekan Air Panas - hot springs,waterfall,local fruits available
  11. Bandar Nusajaya - new admistration of Johor Government

National parks and forest reserves[change | edit source]

Johor is also known for its national parks. Johor currently has five national parks, with a combined area of more than 700 km² and several smaller recreational forest. Almost all recreational parks are based around a mountain. Johor also has the third largest mangrove forest reserve in Peninsular Malaysia (167 km²).

Geography[change | edit source]

Physical[change | edit source]

In the official census of 2010, the population of Johor was 3.35 million people with 48% Malays, 40% Chinese, 8% Indians and 4% others. It is the fifth largest state (18,984 km²) of Malaysia. It is the southernmost state in Peninsular Malaysia being South of Melaka, Negeri Sembilan and Pahang and North of Singapore from which it is separated by the Straits of Johor. The highest point in Johor is Gunung (mountain) Ledang (1276 m). Gunung Ledang is also known as Mount Ophir. Johor is the only state in Malaysia which has a 400 km beach stretching on both the East and the West coast.

Johor has 8 large islands with numerous smaller ones.

  1. Pulau Tinggi
  2. Pulau Rawa
  3. Pulau Sibu
  4. Pulau Tengah
  5. Pulau Pemanggil
  6. Pulau Aur
  7. Pulau Besar
  8. Pulau Lima

Weather[change | edit source]

Johor experiences wet equatorial weather with monsoon rain from Nov until Feb blowing from the South China Sea. Average annual rainfall is 1778 mm with average temperature of between 25.5 °C (78 °F) and 27.8 °C (82 °F). Humidity is between 82 and 86%.

Hundred Year Peak Rain Fall[change | edit source]

On 19 December 2006, continuously heavy downpour occurred in Johor. Many towns such as Muar, Kota Tinggi and Segamat were seriously flooded with water levels as high as 10 feet (3.0 m) above ground level recorded in some areas. 15 lives were lost and many possessions were destroyed and this resulted in huge financial losses in Johor. More than 100,000 victims were evacuated to flood relief centres.

Links to Singapore[change | edit source]

Johor is linked to Singapore by two road connections: the Johor-Singapore Causeway and the Malaysia-Singapore Second Link.

The Johor-Singapore Causeway (length: 1038 m) was designed by Messrs Coode, Fizmaurice, Wilson and Mitchell of Westminster, while the construction contract was awarded to Topham, Jones & Railton Ltd of London. It started in 1909 as a railway link by Johor State Railway to connect Johor Bahru to Singapore, then the administrative headquarters of British interests in South-East Asia. Construction of the road section started in 1919 and was completed in 1923.

Other websites[change | edit source]

Reference[change | edit source]

States and Federal Territories of Malaysia Flag of Malaysia
States: Johor | Kedah | Kelantan | Malacca | Negeri Sembilan | Pahang | Perak | Perlis | Penang | Sabah | Sarawak | Selangor | Terengganu
Federal Territories: Kuala Lumpur | Labuan | Putrajaya