The capital of Okinawa is Naha. Naha is on the island with the most people, Okinawa island. Okinawa used to be called the Ryukyu islands.
Many of Okinawa's islands are scenic, and there are many beaches there.
Okinawa was the site of the last big battle of World War II, the Battle of Okinawa. A lot of Okinawan people died during the battle. Now, the United States has some military bases for soldiers on the different islands of Okinawa.
Okinawa is currently a part of Japan. However, it has its own history and culture distinguished from Japan. The history of Okinawa is usually divided into five eras as follows.
- Prehistoric era (Tens of thousands of years ago~12th century)
- Old Ryukyu era (12th century~1609)
- Early modern Ryukyu era (1609~1879)
- Modern Okinawa era (1879~1945)
- Post-war era (1945~)
In the prehistoric era, hunting animals and collecting plants prevailed. A shift to farming advanced during the 10th to 12th centuries. Many communities were formed, and integrated into three small countries. In 1372, one of these countries belonged to the Chinese Ming Dynasty. This small country became strong because of trade with the Min dynasty, and it unified the countries. It became the "Ryukyu kingdom". This kingdom flourished through trade throughout Asia during the 15th and 16th centuries.
In 1609, Shimazu took over the Ryukyu kingdom. He was the feudal lord of Satsuma Province. This invasion meant that Ryukyu kingdom was incorporated into the Japanese shogunate regime. This domination continued until the end of the 19th century.
In 1867, the Japanese shogunate ended and power was returned to the Emperor Meiji. The new government had a policy to incorporate the Ryukyu kingdom into the Japanese regime. The Ryukyu kingdom was reorganized. At first, in 1871, the Ryukyu kingdom was renamed Ryukyu-han, meaning that it was directly controlled by Japan instead of Satsuma Province. In 1879, it was reorganized as "Okinawa-ken". "Ken" means prefecture. The Ryukyu kingdom was ruined at that time. Okinawa became a Japanese colony.
At first, Japan emphasized the differences between Okinawan and Japanese culture, to justify discriminatory policies in the colony. However, to justify the colonization to the West, the policies were changed to ones which emphasized similarities and which assimilated Okinawa into Japan. Thus, Okinawan society has been greatly influenced by Japan. The biggest influence was that Okinawa was caught up in the Japanese war against U.S.A. and China. Okinawa was incorporated into the war system. At the end of the war, Okinawa itself became the battlefield, the social infrastructure was completely destroyed, and many people died.
After the war, Okinawa was put under the U.S. military. The people expected freedom, but priority was given to U.S. military policy. Therefore, the movement for a return to Japan was strengthened, and it was carried out in 1972. However, the problem continues up to the present as the Japanese government continues to give priority to U.S. military policy. Many US military bases are still left, and crimes by a minority of US soldiers continue to be a social problem.
Related pages [change]
- Nussbaum, Louis-Frédéric. (2005). "Okinawa-ken" in Japan Encyclopedia, p. 746-747.