In Egyptian mythology, Ra was the god of the sun. He was also called Re. He was the most important god in ancient Egypt. He had many names, such as Amun-Ra, and Ra-Horakhty. It was said he was born each morning in the East, and died each night in the West. In the night he traveled through the underworld. This is why the West side of the Nile was known as the land of the dead.
Ra is the god of the sun and creation. Ra’s name came from Re and Amen. The name Re was from Upper Egypt and the name Amen came from Lower Egypt. When Upper and Lower Egypt came together they changed the name to Amen-Re. Over thousands of years the name Amen-Re evolved into Amen-Ra and then just to Ra. From then on people called him Re or Ra. Ra used to mean “mouth” in the Egyptian Language. Some names are:Re, the Creator, Khepry, etc.
Ra has many forms, he may be depicted in his most well known form as the hawk-headed man with which the sun disk may be seen above him. He may also be depicted as a scarab or a man. One is Amun-Ra which is a Ram and the other Ra-Hakorthaty which is a sky sun god.
Friends and Enemies[change]
Some time around the Middle Kingdom, Ra and Osiris became friends. This was unusual because Osiris lived in the Underworld and Ra lived in the Heavens. All the other gods wanted to be friends with Ra. They hoped that if they were friends with Ra, that Ra would tell them his hidden name. But Ra did have some enemies. Seth was sometimes Ra’s enemy, but Seth did help Ra fight Apep, a snake god. The fact that Seth helped Ra reminded all of the gods that Seth was not all bad. Isis was another enemy of Ra, she had tricked him into giving her his hidden name so her husband Osiris could be king of the gods.
The cult of Ra began to grow from around the time of the II Dynasty, establishing Ra as the sun god. By the IV Dynasty, the Pharaohs were seen as "Sons of Ra". His worship increased much in the V Dynasty, when he became a state deity. Pharaohs had pyramids, obelisks and solar temples built in his honor.
Ra was the greatest god when it came to powers. His powers live in his hidden name. Only he knew his hidden name so only he could use the powers. It was said that he had the best powers throughout the land. He could make anything, he made people, he made the world, and he made the heavens. That is how great his powers were. One day Isis wanted to have his powers so she sent a serpent to poison him on his daily walk and when the pain was so bad, Ra gave in and told her his hidden name. Ever since then Isis has had some of Ra’s powers.
Everyone wanted to be in Ra’s family because he was the main god (and probably the only god that lived in heaven.) His daughter that he had with Nut (his grand-daughter) was named Hathor, the goddess of love. Ra had two children Shu, the god of air and Tefnut, the goddess of morning dew. They had two children named Nut, the goddess of the sky and Geb, the god of earth. They had four children named Isis, the goddess of home, Nephthys, the goddess of mourning, Set, the god of the desert, and Osiris, god of the afterlife. They paired up and had two more babies, Anubis, god of embalming, and Horus, god of the pharaohs.
- Remler, Pat, Egyptian Mythology from A-Z 180-181
- Watterson, Barbara, Gods of ancient Egypt
- Wilkinson, Richard, The Complete Gods and Goddesses of Ancient Egypt
- John, Banes and Jaromir, Malek, The Cultural Atlas of the World: Ancient Egypt 173