Temporal range: late Pliocene – Recent
|Spotted hyena in Amboseli National Park, Kenya|
|Spotted hyena range|
The spotted hyena (Crocuta crocuta) is a species of hyenas. They are often called the laughing hyena and the tiger wolf. They live in Sub-Saharan Africa. They are found almost everywhere in Africa. There are between 27,000 to 47,000 individuals, though their population is getting smaller in the wild. This is because of habitat loss and illegal hunting. They have been living in Europe for at least one million years until the end of the Pleistocene.
The spotted hyena is the largest member of the Hyaenidae. The spotted hyena are the most social Carnivora animals. They have the big group sizes. Their behaviors are still difficult to understand by humans. However, their social system is not cooperative but competitive. Females take care of their own cubs only, and males are not interested in helping females with their cubs. Females are larger than males and they can control them. The females are the only mammalian species to not have a vaginal opening.
The spotted hyena is a successful animal when hunting their prey. They are also scavengers and can eat skin, bone and other animal waste. Spotted hyenas will hunt with up to 2-5 other hyenas. They will run around herds of animals and choose one to attack. After they have selected their prey, they will chase them for a long time. They can run at speeds up to 60 km/h. Humans have seen spotted hyenas since the Upper Paleolithic. At the time, they used paintings in caves to describe what they saw. Spotted hyenas have a negative reputation in both Western culture and African folklore. In African folklores, spotted hyenas are described as ugly and scared animals. In Western culture, they are seen as greedy, stupid, foolish, powerful and a dangerous animal.
Books[change | change source]
- Funk, Holger (2010). Hyaena: On the naming and localisation of an enigmatic animal. GRIN Verlag.
- Kruuk, Hans (1972). The spotted hyena: a study of predation and social behaviour. University of California Press
- Mills, Gus; Hofer, Heribert (1998). Hyaenas: status survey and conservation action plan. IUCN/SSC Hyena Specialist Group.
- Mills, Gus; Mills, Margie (2011). Hyena Nights & Kalahari Days. Jacana Media.
- Rosevear, Donovan Reginald (1974). The carnivores of West Africa. London : Trustees of the British Museum (Natural History).
References[change | change source]
- Glikman S.E. et al 2006. Mammalian sexual differentiation: lessons from the spotted hyena. Trends Endocrinol Metab 17:349–356. 
Other websites[change | change source]
|Wikispecies has information on: Crocuta crocuta.|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Crocuta crocuta|
- The IUCN Hyaenidae Specialist Group page on spotted hyena
- Davis, Delbert Dwight & Story, Harriette Elizabeth (1949), The female external genitalia of the spotted hyena, Fieldiana: Zoology, vol. 31, no. 33, Chicago Natural History Museum
- McPherson, Jamie The Good, the Bad and the Hyena, BBC Wildlife, Summer 2008.