Basque language

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Basque
Euskara
Native toSpain, France
RegionSpanish Basque Country
Spanish Navarre
French Basque Country
EthnicityBasque
Native speakers
715,000 (2012)[1]
Early forms
Latin (Basque alphabet)
Official status
Official language in
Basque Country
Navarre
Regulated byEuskaltzaindia
Language codes
ISO 639-1eu
ISO 639-2baq (B)
eus (T)
ISO 639-3eus
Linguasphere40-AAA-a
Basque Country in Spain and France
Basque dialects
Spoken Basque

Basque (Basque: Euskara) is the language spoken by the Basque people in the Basque Country and its diaspora. Although most other Europeans speak Indo-European languages, Basque is a language isolate and is not related to them or to any other language in the world.

History and classification[change | change source]

The ancestors of Basques are among the oldest residents of Europe, and their origins are unknown, as are the origins of the language. Many scholars have tried to link Basque to Etruscan, African languages, Caucasian languages and so on, but most see Basque as a language isolate. A connection with the Iberian language has given some hope, but it is unclear whether similarities are caused by genetic relations or mere vicinity. It was spoken long before the Romans brought Latin to the Iberian Peninsula.

Geographic distribution[change | change source]

Percentage of fluent speakers of Basque.

Basque is spoken in an area that is smaller than what is known as the Basque Country (Basque: Euskal Herria). Basque was once spoken over a larger area, but Latin took over in some places.

Official status[change | change source]

Historically, Latin or a Romance language has been official.

Today Basque holds co-official language status in the Basque regions of Spain: the full autonomous community of the Basque Country and some parts of Navarre. Basque has no official standing in the Northern Basque area of France, and French citizens are barred from using Basque in a French court of law.

Dialects[change | change source]

There are six main Basque dialects, comprising Biscayan, Guipuzcoan, and High Navarrese (in Spain), and Low Navarrese, Labourdin, and Souletin (in France). The dialect boundaries are not, however, congruent with political boundaries. One of the first scientific studies of Basque dialects, in particular the auxiliary verb forms, was made by Louis-Lucien Bonaparte (a nephew of Napoleon Bonaparte).

Derived languages[change | change source]

There is now a unified version called Batua ("unified" in Basque), which is the language taught in schools. Batua is based largely on the Gipuzkoa regional dialect.

Grammar[change | change source]

Basque is an ergative-absolutive language. Its grammar is very complex, with many different cases for nouns.

The vowel system is the same as most Spanish-speakers and has five pure vowels, /i e a o u/.

Vocabulary[change | change source]

By contact with nearby peoples, Basque has borrowed words from Latin, Spanish, French, Gascon and others but accepted fewer than Indo-European languages. Some claim that many of its words come from Latin, but phonetic evolution has made many of them now appear as if they were native words, e.g. lore ("flower", from florem), errota ("mill", from rotam, "[mill] wheel"), gela ("room", from cellam).

Writing system[change | change source]

Basque is written with the Latin alphabet. The universal special letter is ñ, which is pronounced like the n in onion, and ç and ü are also used. Basque does not use c, q, v, w, y except for loanwords and are not considered part of the alphabet. Also, x is pronounced as a sh, as in shine.

Sample phrases[change | change source]

  • Bai = Yes
  • Ez = No
  • Kaixo!, = Hello
  • Agur!, Adio! = Goodbye!
  • Ikusi arte = See you!
  • Eskerrik asko! = Thank you!
  • Egun on = Good morning (literally: Good day)
  • Egun on, bai = Standard reply to Egun on
  • Arratsalde on = Good evening
  • Gabon = Good night
  • Mesedez = Please
  • Barkatu = Excuse (me)
  • Aizu! = Listen! (To get someone's attention, not very polite, to be used with friends)
  • Kafe hutsa nahi nuke = Can I have a coffee?
  • Kafe ebakia nahi nuke = Can I have a macchiato?
  • Kafesnea nahi nuke = Can I have a café latte?
  • Garagardoa nahi nuke = Can I have a beer?
  • Komunak = Toilets
  • Komuna, non dago? = Where are the toilets?
  • Non dago tren-geltokia? = Where is the train station?
  • Non dago autobus-geltokia? = Where is the bus station?
  • Ba al da hotelik hemen inguruan? = Where is the (nearest, only) hotel?
  • Zorionak = Happy holidays (During Christmas and new year's), congratulations
  • Ez dakit euskaraz= I do not speak Basque
  • Ba al dakizu ingelesez?= Do you speak English?
  • Nongoa zara? = Where are you from?
  • Non dago...? = Where is...?
  • Badakizu euskaraz? = Do you speak Basque?
  • Bai ote? = Really?
  • Topa! = Cheers!
  • Hementxe! = Over / right here!
  • Geldi!= Stop
  • Lasai= Take it easy
  • Ez dut nahi= I do not want

References[change | change source]

  1. Gobierno Vasco (July 2012). "V. Inkesta Soziolinguistikoa". Servicio Central de Publicaciones del Gobierno Vasco. Retrieved 18 July 2012.

Other websites[change | change source]

Grammar[change | change source]