Cervical cancer

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Cervical cancer is cancer of the cervix (the organ that connects the uterus and the vagina). It is caused by a virus called human papillomavirus (HPV). It is a serious medical problem and sometimes causes malignance and death.

One sign of cervical cancer is bleeding or discharge from the vagina. Sometimes, there are no symptoms until the cancer is very developed. For this reason, pap smears have become common to diagnose this cancer. They have cut the rate of cervical cancer in half.[source?]

For early cervical cancer, surgery is the first treatment. For cancer that is farther along, chemotherapy and radiotherapy can be used.

Most types of cervical cancer can be prevented by a vaccine. It prevents the types of HPV that cause 70% of cervical cancer.[1][2] Experts recommend that women get the vaccine and normal pap smears.

Stages of cervical cancer[change | change source]

  • Stage 1 means the cancer is only in the neck of the womb (cervix).[3]
  • Stage 2 means that cancer has spread outside the cervix to the surrounding tissue.
  • Stage 3 means that cancer has spread to the pelvic sidewall or Lower the third of the vagina, hydronephrosis, or a non-functioning kidney that is an invasion of the ureter.[4]
  • Stage 4 means cancer has spread to the bladder or back passage or beyond. The main treatment is surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these treatments. Or you may have treatment to control symptoms.

References[change | change source]

  1. "FDA Licenses New Vaccine for Prevention of Cervical Cancer". U.S. Food and Drug Administration. 2006-06-08. Archived from the original on 2009-05-12. Retrieved 2007-12-02. Check date values in: |date= (help)
  2. Lowy DR, Schiller JT (2006). "Prophylactic human papillomavirus vaccines". J. Clin. Invest. 116 (5): 1167–73. doi:10.1172/JCI28607. PMID 16670757. Retrieved 2007-12-01.[permanent dead link]
  3. "Stage 1 | Cervical cancer | Cancer Research UK". www.cancerresearchuk.org. Retrieved 2021-09-15.
  4. "Cervical Cancer Screening, Stages and Treatment in India | Gunjan IVF". gunjanivfworld. Retrieved 2021-09-15.