Copper(II) chloride

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Copper(II) chloride
Tolbachite-3D-balls.png
Copper(II) chloride.jpg
Cupric chloride.jpg
Other names Cupric chloride
Identifiers
CAS number 7447-39-4
PubChem 24014
ChEBI CHEBI:49553
RTECS number GL7000000
SMILES Cl[Cu]Cl
Properties
Molecular formula CuCl2
Molar mass 134.45 g/mol (anhydrous)
170.48 g/mol (dihydrate)
Appearance yellow-brown solid (anhydrous)
blue-green solid (dihydrate)
Odor odorless
Density 3.386 g/cm3 (anhydrous)
2.51 g/cm3 (dihydrate)
Melting point

498 °C, 771 K, 928 °F

Boiling point

993 °C, 1266 K, 1819 °F

Solubility in water 70.6 g/100 mL (0 °C)
75.7 g/100 mL (25 °C)
107.9 g/100 mL (100 °C)
Solubility methanol:
68 g/100 mL (15 °C)


ethanol:
53 g/100 mL (15 °C)
soluble in acetone

+1080·10−6 cm3/mol
Structure
Crystal structure distorted CdI2 structure
Coordination
geometry
Octahedral
Hazards
EU classification Not listed
NFPA 704

NFPA 704.svg

0
2
1
 
Flash point Non-flammable
U.S. Permissible
exposure limit (PEL)
TWA 1 mg/m3 (as Cu)[1]
Related compounds
Other anions Copper(II) fluoride
Copper(II) bromide
Other cations Copper(I) chloride
Silver chloride
Gold(III) chloride
Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C, 100 kPa)

Copper(II) chloride, also known as cupric chloride, is a chemical compound. Its chemical formula is CuCl2. It contains copper in its +2 oxidation state. It also contains chloride ions.

Properties[change | change source]

Copper(II) chloride is light brown when anhydrous. It is green when hydrated. It is a weak oxidizing agent. It reacts with aluminium foil to make hydrogen, copper(I) oxide, and aluminium chloride. This is used in school demonstrations. It releases chlorine and turns into copper(I) chloride when heated very hot. It reacts with sodium hydroxide to make copper(II) hydroxide. Copper(II) chloride reacts with metals to make metal chlorides and copper. It puts out blue flames if it is heated in a flame. It reacts with sulfur dioxide to make copper(I) chloride. It dissolves in water to make a blue solution. When more chloride is added, it turns green, then yellow.[2]

Preparation[change | change source]

Crystals of copper(II) chloride in a container

It is made by reacting copper with chlorine. It can also be made by reacting copper(II) hydroxide, copper(II) oxide, or copper(II) carbonate with hydrochloric acid and from pure copper and from 1:1 solution of hydrogen peroxide and hydrochloric acid where copper first get oxidized to CuO from H2O2 and then reacts with HCl to form CuCl2, reaction goes like this:

Cu + H2O2 → CuO + H2O

CuO + 2HCl → CuCl2 + H2O

[3]

Uses[change | change source]

Copper(II) chloride is used to make fungicides. It is also used to make organic compounds. It is also used to make acetaldehyde from ethane. [4]

Safety[change | change source]

It is toxic, with toxicity similar to copper sulfate It is therefore harmful. [5]

Related pages[change | change source]

References[change | change source]

  1. "NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards #0150". National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). 
  2. http://www.amazingrust.com/Experiments/background_knowledge/CuCl2.html
  3. http://www.wiredchemist.com/chemistry/instructional/an-introduction-to-chemistry/reactions/types-of-reactions
  4. http://www.docbrown.info/uses.htm
  5. http://www.dartmouth.edu/~toxmetal/toxic-metals/more-metals/copper-faq.html