The Dunning–Kruger effect is a bias in thinking, usually where a person is unaware of how badly they grasp a subject, not understanding that they are failing at it. They mistakenly think that they are doing as well as "average" or even "above average".
It is a psychological effect in which people don't realize their level of knowledge or ability in a subject. People who know little about a subject will think that they know more than they actually know.
The investigators said:
- "The miscalibration of the incompetent stems from an error about the self, whereas the miscalibration of the highly competent stems from an error about others".