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Eschscholzia californica

From Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Eschscholzia californica is a species of plant in the family papaveraceae (the poppy family). It is native to Mexico and the United States. People grow this flower for decoration in many different countries around the world. Its cup-shaped petals are usually orange, but can be red, yellow (sometimes pink or white). It flowers in summer (Spring in Australia). It's probably planted in Janurary or March in the same year or in October for next year.

Eschscholzia californica was given its name because of where it was found. California made the plant their state flower in 1903. Other names for the plant are: California poppy, golden poppy, California sunlight or cup of gold.

Description[change | change source]

California poppy is a perennial or annual plant growing to 5–12 inches (13–30 cm) tall[1] with four petals, each petal 2 to 6 cm (0.79 to 2.36 inches) long and wide. It has alternatively branching blue-green leaves.

The petals close at night (or in cold, windy weather) and open again the following morning, but they might stay closed in cloudy weather.[2] This is called a photonastic response.

The pod is a thin oval capsule 3 to 9 cm (1.2 to 3.5 inches) long, which splits in two, sometimes explosively with a snap you might be able to hear. This is how the plant spreads the many seeds it contains in the pod. The seeds are small, 1.5–1.8 mm (0.059–0.071 inch) wide, colour black or dark brown.[3]

Habitat[change | change source]

The plant is naitive to California and Oregon, Washington, Nevada, Arizona, New Mexico, Sonora and northwest Baja California. The Antelope Valley California Poppy Reserve is located in northern Los Angeles County.

It can survive over the winter in its natural climate but might die in places where it gets colder.

Uses[change | change source]

The petals of E. californica have been used fresh to make a paste or dried petals added to hot water to make an infusion or tea. They have been used in traditional medicine and tribal medicine by naitive Californians and tribes.

The leaves can be used as food or in cooking. The seeds can be used in cooking, probably on bread.

Chemical compounds[change | change source]

E. californica contains californidine (N+(CH3)2), allocryptopine, eschscholtzine N-CH3 (californidine), and other similar (Papaveraceae) alkaloids[4] but not opium. It contains sanguinarine.

References[change | change source]

  1. "Eschscholzia californica | California poppy Annual Biennial/RHS Gardening". www.rhs.org.uk. Retrieved 2024-05-18.
  2. "The Floral Genome Project". www.floralgenome.org. Retrieved 2024-05-18.
  3. "Eschscholzia californica". ucjeps.berkeley.edu. Retrieved 2024-05-18.
  4. "Kalifornischer Goldmohn (Eschscholzia californica) im GIFTPFLANZEN.COMpendium - www.giftpflanzen.com". www.giftpflanzen.com. Retrieved 2024-05-18.