First Bulgarian Empire

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First Bulgarian Empire

ц︢рьство бл︢гарское
681–1018
First Bulgarian Empire in 850[1][2]
First Bulgarian Empire in 850[1][2]
CapitalPliska (681–893),
Preslav (893–968/972),
Skopje, Ohrid, Bitola (until 1018)
Common languagesBulgar,[3]
Proto-Slavic,
Byzantine Greek,[4][5][6]
Balkan Romance,
Old Bulgarian (official from 893)[7]
Religion
Tengrism, Slavic paganism (681–864),
Orthodox Christianity (state religion from 864)
GovernmentAbsolute monarchy
Monarch 
• 681-700
Asparuh (first)
• 1015-1018
Ivan Vladislav of Bulgaria (last)
Historical eraMiddle Ages
• Asparuh arrives and defeats Eastern Rome at the Battle of Ongal
680
• New Bulgarian state recognized by Eastern Rome
681
864
• Adoption of Old Bulgarian as a national language
893
• Simeon I assumes the title of Tsar (Emperor)
913
• Theme Bulgaria established in Byzantine Empire
1018 1018
Area
895[8]440,000 km2 (170,000 sq mi)
927[9][10]325,000 km2 (125,000 sq mi)
1000[11]235,000 km2 (91,000 sq mi)
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Byzantine Calvary cross potent (transparent).png Quaestura exercitus
Image missing Avar Khaganate
The Monogram of Kubrat.png Old Great Bulgaria
Byzantine Empire under the Macedonian dynasty Flag placeholder.svg

The First Bulgarian Empire (Old Bulgarian: ц︢рьство бл︢гарское, ts'rstvo bl'garskoe[12]) was a medieval Bulgarian state founded in AD 632 in the lands near the Danube Delta and which disintegrated in AD 1185 after its annexation to the Byzantine Empire.

References[change | change source]

  1. Fine, John. Early medieval Balkans. ISBN 0-472-08149-7.
  2. Curta, Florin. Southeastern Europe in the Middle ages 500 - 1200. ISBN 0-521-81539-8.
  3. Sedlar, Jean W. (2011). East Central Europe in the Middle Ages, 1000–1500. University of Washington Press. p. 424. ISBN 9780295800646.
  4. Fletcher, Richard A. (1999). The Barbarian Conversion: from Paganism to Christianity. University of California Press. p. 338. ISBN 0-520-21859-0.
  5. Adrados, Francisco Rodríguez (2005). A History of the Greek Language: from its Origins to the Present. BRILL. p. 265. ISBN 90-04-12835-2.
  6. Curta 2008, pp. 350–351
  7. Radoev, Ivanov Alexander (2019). THE CROATIAN ORTHODOX CHURCH Was, Is, And Shall Be. Zagreb, Croatia: Croatian Archbishop Alexander. p. 64. ISBN 978-0-359-99545-5. According to the law of 893, in the Bulgarian Empire everyone was Bulgarian, and the Bulgarian language was mandatory in the liturgy (with Cyrillic or Glagolitic script).
  8. Rashev, Rasho (2008). Българската езическа култура VII -IX в./Bulgarian Pagan Culture VII - IX c. (In Bulgarian. Класика и стил. ISBN 9789543270392.
  9. Rashev, Rasho (2008). Българската езическа култура VII -IX в./Bulgarian Pagan Culture VII - IX c. (In Bulgarian. Класика и стил. ISBN 9789543270392.
  10. Davies, Norman (1997). Europe. A History. Oxford University press. ISBN 954-427-663-7.
  11. Rashev, Rasho (2008). Българската езическа култура VII -IX в./Bulgarian Pagan Culture VII - IX c. (In Bulgarian. Класика и стил. ISBN 9789543270392.
  12. Radoev, Ivanov Alexander (2019). THE CROATIAN ORTHODOX CHURCH Was, Is, And Shall Be. Zagreb, Croatia: Croatian Archbishop Alexander. p. 64. ISBN 978-0-359-99545-5. According to the law of 893, in the Bulgarian Empire everyone was Bulgarian, and the Bulgarian language was mandatory in the liturgy (with Cyrillic or Glagolitic script).