Doping[change | change source]
Landis was fired from the Phonak team on 5 August 2006. The doping test after stage 17 of the 2006 Tour de France showed he had a very high testosterone/epitestosterone ratio. The rules say that for every one unit of one chemical he should have four unites of the other (a 4 to one (4:1) ratio). Landis's test showed a ratio of 11:1.
Landis appealed to the USA Cycling and saying the tests were not done properly. USA Cycling asked three people from the United States Anti-Doping Agency (USADA) to study Landis's claims. On 20 September 2007 that group voted 2 to 1 against him. Landis was stripped of his title as winner of the 2006 Tour de France by the UCI, and banned from professional racing for two years. 
Under UCI rules, the cyclist's national federation, in this case USA Cycling decides if the rules have been broken, but because of the science involved they asked the United States Anti-Doping Agency (USADA) to help.
Biography[change | change source]
Landis was brought up a Mennonite, and rode his first races wearing sweatpants because his religion forbade wearing shorts; he won anyway. Landis' father, is a devout Mennonite, and tried to stop him from racing his bike by giving him extra chores. He had no time to train during the day, so he would sneak out of the house at night to train, sometimes at 1 or 2 a.m. and often in the freezing cold. His father, found that Floyd had been going out at night and often followed him at a distance to make sure he was not getting into trouble. Today, Floyd Landis's father is a supporter of his son and says he is one of Floyd's biggest fans.
2006 Tour de France[change | change source]
Before the 2006 Tour de Francemost people thought the winner would be either Ivan Basso or Jan Ullrich, who finished second and third respectively in the 2005 tour. Days before the race, the Operación Puerto doping case forced Basso and Ullrich to withdraw, and Landis became one of the favourites to win
Hip ailment[change | change source]
Landis performance up to Stage 16 of the Tour de France and his comeback in Stage 17 is surprising because of his hip ailment, called osteonecrosis, which was revealed in an article in The New York Times during the 2006 Tour de France. This means he was in constant pain.
Doping investigation[change | change source]
On July 27, 2006 the Phonak Cycling Team said Floyd Landis had a urine test come back positive, having an unusually high ratio of the hormone testosterone to the hormone epitestosterone (T/E ratio) after Stage 17. Landis denied having doped. Phonak stated that he would be dismissed should the backup sample also test positive. It did, and Landis was suspended from professional cycling and dismissed from his team. Landis's personal physician later disclosed that the test had found a T/E ratio of 11:1 in Landis, far above the maximum allowable ratio of 4:1.
The tests were done by French government's anti-doping clinical laboratory, the National Laboratory for Doping Detection (LNDD)which is part of the Ministry of Youth, Sport, and Social Life, and is and is accredited by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA).)
Appeal[change | change source]
As Landis forfeited his Tour title, the second place rider, Óscar Pereiro, became the race's official winner. Landis has also been banned from the sport for two years, dated retroactively to January 2007.
Landis's former team, Phonak has already been disbanded
The USADA had more B samples taken during the Tour de France 2006 examined. After Landis's attempts to prevent these tests had failed, traces of exogenous testosterone were found in several samples in a test of seven samples. These confirmation tests were done at the same French lab Landis's team was trying to discredit for the first positive results.
Landis did race in France in 2007 so that the appeal could be decided in the United States first. If the raced in France they may start their own investigation because doping is illegal in France.
Among Landis's lawyers are José Maria Buxeda of Spain and Howard L. Jacobs of the United States. Buxeda represented Spanish cyclist Roberto Heras when he was suspended for two years after testing positive for doping. Jacobs has also defended athletes accused of doping, such as cyclist Tyler Hamilton and sprinter Tim Montgomery. They are also representing Kazakh cyclist Alexandre Vinokourov who was accused of blood doping, kicked out of the 2007 Tour de France, and fired from his cycling team.
Verdict[change | change source]
On September 20, 2007 Landis was found guilty of doping by a 2-1 vote of the hearing committee. The committee said that there were mistakes testing the sample so they will not say that there was a high amount of the natural chemical testosterone. But the committee did say was proof of artificial testosterone and that
an Anti-Doping Rule Violation is found to have been established
Major results[change | change source]
- 1999 - Mercury Pro Cycling Team
- 2nd overall and 1 stage win – Cascade Classic
- 2000 - Mercury Pro Cycling Team
- Overall – Tour du Poitou-Charentes
- 2001 - Mercury Pro Cycling Team
- Boulevard Road Race
- 2002 - U.S. Postal Service
- 2nd overall – Dauphiné Libéré
- 3rd stage, Tirreno-Adriatico
- 61st overall – Tour de France
- 2003 - U.S. Postal Service
- 77th overall – Tour de France
- 2004 - U.S. Postal Service
- Overall – Volta ao Algarve
- Stage 5 – Volta ao Algarve
- Team time trial – Tour de France
- Team time trial – Vuelta a España
- 23rd overall – Tour de France
- 2005 - Phonak Hearing Systems
- 3rd overall and Stage 3 win – Tour de Georgia
- 9th overall – Tour de France
- 2006 - Phonak Hearing Systems
- 1st, Profronde van Stiphout
- 1st, USA Cycling National Racing Calendar series
- 1st overall – Tour de Georgia
- 1st, Stage 3 (ITT) – Tour de Georgia
- 1st overall – Paris-Nice
- 1st overall – Tour of California
- 1st, Stage 3 (ITT) – Tour of California
References[change | change source]
- "Phonak Cycling Team to clarify consequences". Phonak Cycling Team. 2006-08-05. http://www.phonak-cycling.ch/index.php?id=5&L=1&uid=330. Retrieved 2006-08-05.
- "Backup Test Confirms Adverse Findings in Tour de France Champ Landis' Urine". FoxNews.com. 2006-08-05. http://www.foxnews.com/story/0,2933,207157,00.html. Retrieved 2006-08-05.
- Hiltzik, Michael A. "Panel strips Landis of his Tour de France title". Los Angeles Times, September 21 2007.
- "Landis Tests Positive; Title is a total complete loss". Chicago Tribune. 2006-08-05.
- "US Cycling hands Landis case to USADA". Guardian. 2006-08-06. http://sport.guardian.co.uk/breakingnews/feedstory/0,,-5996982,00.html. Retrieved 2006-08-06.
- Everson, Darren (2006, July 30). World Descends on Farmersville. New York Daily News, p. 62-63.
- Floyd Landis - Mennonite in tights. The Religion Report 26 July 2006
- OLN Television broadcast of the 2006 Tour de France, July 22 2006
- Coyle, Daniel (July 2006). "The New American in Paris". Outside Magazine. http://outside.away.com/outside/features/200607/tour-de-france-2006-floyd-landis-5.html.
- "What He's Been Pedaling", The New York Times, July 16, 2006.
- "Landis's Hip Will Need Surgery After Bid for Tour", The New York Times, July 10, 2006.
- "Landis gives positive drugs test". BBC Sport. 2006-07-27. http://news.bbc.co.uk/sport2/hi/other_sports/cycling/5221122.stm. Retrieved 2006-08-01.
- Toman, Mar (2006-07-31). "Landis requests backup sample to clear doping allegations".
- "Landis gives positive drugs test". BBC News. 2006-07-27. http://news.bbc.co.uk/sport1/hi/other_sports/cycling/5221122.stm.
- "Landis sample 'well above limit'". BBC News. 2006-08-02. http://news.bbc.co.uk/sport2/hi/other_sports/cycling/5237990.stm. Retrieved 2006-08-02.
- Macur, Juliet (2006-07-31). "Testosterone in Landis’s Body Said Not to Be Natural". New York Times. https://www.nytimes.com/2006/07/31/sports/othersports/31cnd-landis.html. Retrieved 2006-08-01.
- Eustice, John (2006-08-16). "What if Floyd Landis were innocent?". International Herald Tribune. http://www.iht.com/articles/2006/08/16/opinion/edeustice.php. Retrieved 2006-08-16.
- L'Heureux, David (2007-02-07). "Floyd's Hearing Date Set". Bicycling. http://www.bicycling.com/article/1,6610,s1-3-343-15685-1,00.html.
- "Arbitrators say Landis is guilty". 2007-09-20. http://edition.cnn.com/2007/SPORT/09/20/cycling.landis.ap/. Retrieved 2007-09-20.
- Hood, Andrew (2006-08-15). "End of the road for Phonak". http://www.velonews.com/news/fea/10712.0.html. Retrieved 2006-08-15.
- "Landis is ultra-positive". 2007-04-26. http://www.dnaindia.com/report.asp?NewsID=1092968.
- "Ruling of the AAA Panel in the case of Floyd Landis". The [[Unitedass of america Anti-Doping Agency]]. http://www.usantidoping.org/files/active/arbitration_rulings/Landis%20Final%20(20-09-07)%20(3).pdf. Retrieved 2007-09-24.
- Landis loses verdict, must forfeit Tour title MSNBC, September 20, 2007