|Primary inflows||Selenge, Barguzin, Upper Angara|
|Catchment area||560,000 km2 (216,000 sq mi)|
|Basin countries||Russia and Mongolia|
|Max. length||636 km (395 mi)|
|Max. width||79 km (49 mi)|
|Surface area||31,722 km2 (12,248 sq mi)|
|Average depth||744.4 m (2,442 ft)|
|Max. depth||1,642 m (5,387 ft)|
|Water volume||23,615.39 km3 (5,700 cu mi)|
|Residence time||330 years|
|Shore length1||2,100 km (1,300 mi)|
|Surface elevation||455.5 m (1,494 ft)|
|1 Shore length is not a well-defined measure.|
Baikal is about 636 kilometres (395 mi) long. It is 20 to 80 kilometres (12 to 50 mi) wide. At its deepest point, it is 1,700 metres (5,600 ft) deep. With this depth it is the deepest lake on Earth. The lake is a UNESCO World Heritage Site. It holds about 20% of the world's unfrozen surface fresh water,
The lake has fish that exist only here and nowhere else. It is home to more than 1,700 species of plants and animals, two-thirds of which can be found nowhere else in the world.
Geology[change | change source]
At the Baikal Rift Zone, the Earth's crust pulls apart. It is the deepest lake in the world at 1,642 m (5,387 ft). The bottom of the lake is 1,186.5 m (3,893 ft) below sea level, but below this lies some 7 km (4.3 mi) of sediment. This means the rift floor is 8–11 km (5.0–6.8 mi) below the surface: the deepest continental rift on Earth.
In geological terms, the rift is young and active – it widens about two cm per year. The fault zone is also seismically active; there are hot springs in the area and notable earthquakes every few years.
Baikal's age is 25–30 million years: it is one of the oldest lakes. It is unique among large, high-latitude lakes, because its sediments have not been scoured by overriding continental ice sheets. U.S. and Russian studies of core sediment in the 1990s gave a detailed record of climatic variation over the past 250,000 years. Longer and deeper sediment cores are expected soon. Lake Baikal is the only confined freshwater lake in which evidence of gas hydrates exists.
The lake is completely surrounded by mountains. The Baikal Mountains on the north shore and the taiga are protected as a national park. It has 27 islands; the largest, Olkhon, is 72 km (45 mi) long and is the third-largest lake-bound island in the world. The lake is fed by as many as 330 inflowing rivers. It is drained through a single outlet, the Angara River.
Despite its great depth, the lake's waters are well-mixed and well-oxygenated throughout the water column, compared to the stratification that occurs in such bodies of water as Lake Tanganyika and the Black Sea.
Wildlife[change | change source]
The omul fish (Coregonus autumnalis migratorius) is local to Lake Baikal. It is fished, smoked, and sold on all markets around the lake. For many travellers on the Trans-Siberian railway, purchasing smoked omul is one of the highlights of the long journey.
Ecosystem[change | change source]
Related pages[change | change source]
- List of World Heritage Sites in Russia
- Marina Rikhvanova, an ecologist who works to protect Lake Baikal
References[change | change source]
- "A new bathymetric map of Lake Baikal. MORPHOMETRIC DATA. INTAS Project 99-1669.Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium; Consolidated Research Group on Marine Geosciences (CRG-MG), University of Barcelona, Spain; Limnological Institute of the Siberian Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Irkutsk, Russian Federation; State Science Research Navigation-Hydrographic Institute of the Ministry of Defense, St.Petersburg, Russian Federation". Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium. http://users.ugent.be/~mdbatist/intas/morphometry.htm. Retrieved 9 July 2009.
- M.A. Grachev. "On the present state of the ecological system of lake Baikal". Lymnological Institute, Siberian Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences. http://lin.irk.ru/grachev/eng/introduction.htm. Retrieved 9 July 2009.
- "About Lake Baikal=--- details from the Encyclopedia". irkutsk.org. http://www.irkutsk.org/baikal/encicl.htm. Retrieved 5 August 2010.
- "Lake Baikal - UNESCO World Heritage Centre". whc.unesco.org. http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/754. Retrieved 5 August 2010.
- "Lake Baikal: the great blue eye of Siberia". CNN. Archived from the original on 11 October 2006. https://web.archive.org/web/20061011114225/http://www.cnn.com/SPECIALS/2000/russia/story/train/lake.baikal/. Retrieved 21 October 2006.
- "Russia".. (2007). Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Retrieved on 3 July 2007.
- "The oddities of Lake Baikal". Alaska Science Forum. http://www.gi.alaska.edu/ScienceForum/ASF9/986.html. Retrieved 7 January 2007.
- Kuzmin M.I. et al 1998. First find of gas hydrates in sediments of Lake Baikal. Doklady Adademii Nauk, 362: 541–543 (in Russian).
- Vanneste M. et al (2001). "Multi-frequency seismic study of gas hydrate-bearing sediments in Lake Baikal, Siberia". Marine Geology 172 (1): 1–21. doi:10.1016/S0025-3227(00)00117-1.
- Van Rensbergen P. et al (2002). "Sublacustrine mud volcanoes and methane seeps caused by dissociation of gas hydrates in Lake Baikal". Geology 30 (7): 631–634. doi:10.1130/0091-7613(2002)030<0631:SMVAMS>2.0.CO;2.
- "WWW Irkutsk: Animals and fishes of Lake Baikal". irkutsk.org. http://www.irkutsk.org/baikal/animals.htm. Retrieved 5 August 2010.
- World Network of Biosphere Reserves (WNBR), "Baikalskyi"; retrieved 2012-7-18.
- WNBR, "Barguzinskyi"; retrieved 2012-7-18.