Louis Philippe I

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Louis Philippe I
1841 portrait painting of Louis Philippe I (King of the French) by Winterhalter.jpg
King of the French
Reign9 August 1830 – 24 February 1848
Coronation9 August 1830
PredecessorCharles X
Born(1773-10-06)6 October 1773
Palais Royal, Paris, Kingdom of France
Died26 August 1850(1850-08-26) (aged 76)
Claremont House, Surrey, England, UK
SpouseMaria Amalia of Naples and Sicily
IssuePrince Ferdinand Philippe, Duke of Orléans
Louise, Queen of the Belgians
Marie, Duchess Alexander of Württemberg
Prince Louis, Duke of Nemours
Princess Françoise of Orléans
Clémentine, Princess August of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
François, Prince of Joinville
Prince Charles, Duke of Penthièvre
Prince Henri, Duke of Aumale
Prince Antoine, Duke of Montpensier
Full name
Louis Philippe d'Orléans
HouseHouse of Orléans
FatherPhilippe Égalité
MotherLouise Marie Adélaïde de Bourbon
ReligionRoman Catholic
SignatureLouis Philippe I's signature

Louis Philippe I (6 October 1773 – 26 August 1850) was the second person to have the title King of the French. Following the execution of Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette, France became a republic. He spent 21 years in exile before being made king after the abdication of Charles X of France in 1830. His relatively short reign (1830–1848) was known as the July Monarchy. Louis-Philippe promoted friendship with Great Britain. He sponsored colonialism, notably the conquest of Algeria. His popularity faded quickly when French troops fired on demonstrators.[1] This set off the French Revolution of 1848 causing Louis Philippe to flee to England as "Mr. Smith".[1] He lived out his life in exile in England. His eldest son and heir died before succeeding him. This brought the Kingdom of the French to an end.

Early life[change | change source]

The Duke and Duchess of Chartres with an enfant Louis Philippe (1837 copy of 1776 original).

Born at the Palais Royal in Paris he was named Louis Philippe d'Orléans, Louis Philippe in honour of his father. His parents were the Duke and Duchess of Orléans. One of the most senior members of the French royal court. He was born a Prince of the blood which entitled him to be addressed as His Serene Highness. From birth he was given the title of Duke of Valois one of his fathers subsidiary titles. He was the eldest of four children born to the duke and duchess. He was a member of the House of Orléans, itself a cadet branch of the ruling House of Bourbon. The two branches were both directly descended from Louis XIV and were often in competition with one another.

His education was carried out by Madame de Genlis who was later his fathers mistress. It was she who instilled a fairly liberal attitude within the young prince. When Louis Philippe's grandfather died in 1785, his father succeeded him as Duke of Orléans and Louis Philippe succeeded his father as Duke of Chartres.

His parents had a strained marriage the Duke was famous for his many extramarital affairs and his wife just quietly accepted his infidelity. She was a notoriously religious woman who relished watching her children grow up. Louis Philippe was the eldest of four children born to the couple. Louis Philippe was very close to his brother, the younger Duke of Montpensier.

In 1792 he joined the French army and went to fight in Austria.[2] But in April 1793 he deserted.[2] He could not return to France so he found work as a teacher in Switzerland.[2] He then went to live in Sweden. After that he lived in the United States and finally he moved to England.[2]

After the abdication of Napoleon in 1814, Louis Philippe returned to France.[3] King Louis XVIII gave him back his Orléans estates.[3]

Marriage[change | change source]

In 1808, proposed to Princess Elizabeth, daughter of King George III of the United Kingdom. His Catholicism and the opposition of her mother Queen Charlotte meant the princess reluctantly declined the offer.

In 1809, Louis Philippe married Princess Maria Amalia of Naples and Sicily, daughter of King Ferdinand IV of Naples and Maria Carolina of Austria. They had ten children. Maria Amalia was also a niece of the late Queen Marie Antoinette.

He died on August 26, 1850 in Claremont, Surrey, England.[4]

Children[change | change source]

  1. Ferdinand Philippe, Duke of Orléans (3 September 1810 – 13 July 1842) married Duchess Helene of Mecklenburg-Schwerin and had children.
  2. Louise (3 April 1812 - 11 October 1850) married Leopold I of Belgium and had children.
  3. Marie (12 April 1813 - 6 January 1839) married Married Duke Alexander of Württemberg, had children.
  4. Louis, Duke of Nemours (25 October 1814 – 26 June 1896) married Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha and had children.
  5. François, Prince of Joinville (14 August 1818 – 16 June 1900) married Princess Francisca of Brazil and had children.
  6. Françoise (26 March 1816 - 20 May 1818) died young.
  7. Clémentine (6 March 1817 – 16 February 1907) married Prince August of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha and had children.
  8. Charles, Duke of Penthièvre (1 January 1820 – 25 July 1828) died young.
  9. Henri, Duke of Aumale (January 16, 1822 – May 7, 1897) married Princess Carolina Augusta of the Two Sicilies and had children.
  10. Antoine, Duke of Montpensier (31 July 1824 – 4 February 1890) married Infanta Luisa Fernanda of Spain and had children.

Legacy[change | change source]

When king of the French he made his children and descendants legally able to bear the title of Prince/ss of Orléans. With the style of Royal Highness.

Titles and styles[change | change source]

Arms of the July Monarchy (1831-48).
  • 6 October 1773 – 18 November 1785 His Serene Highness The Duke of Valois.
  • 18 November 1785 – 6 November 1793 His Serene Highness The Duke of Chartres.
  • 6 November 1793 – 21 September 1824 His Serene Highness The Duke of Orléans.
  • 21 September 1824 – 9 August 1830 His Royal Highness The Duke of Orléans.
  • 9 August 1830 – 24 February 1848 His Majesty The King [of the French]
  • 24 February 1848 – 26 August 1850 His Majesty King Louis Philippe.

References[change | change source]

  1. 1.0 1.1 "The July Monarchy (1830-1848)". Brown University Library. Retrieved 1 December 2015.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 "Louis-Philippe Biography". Bio/A&E Television Networks, LLC. Retrieved 1 December 2015.
  3. 3.0 3.1 "Louis Philippe". San Jose State University. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 1 December 2015.
  4. "Louis-Philippe". NNDB. Retrieved 1 December 2015.
Louis Philippe I
Cadet branch of the House of Bourbon
Born: 6 October 1773 Died: 26 August 1850
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Charles X
as King of France and of Navarre
King of the French
9 August 1830 – 24 February 1848
Monarchy abolished
Preceded by
Charles X
Co-Prince of Andorra
with Simó de Guardiola

9 August 1830 – 24 February 1848
Succeeded by
Louis Napoleon Bonaparte
French nobility
Preceded by
Philippe Égalité
Duke of Orléans
6 November 1793 – 9 August 1830
Succeeded by
Ferdinand Philippe
Loss of title
King of the French
24 February 1848 – 26 August 1850
Succeeded by
Philippe VII (or Louis Philippe II)