Methane

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[4]
Methane
Ball and stick model of methane
Spacefill model of methane
Names
Preferred IUPAC name
Methane[1]
Systematic IUPAC name
Carbane (never recommended[1])
Other names
  • Marsh gas
  • Natural gas
  • Carbon tetrahydride
  • Hydrogen carbide
Identifiers
3D model (JSmol)
3DMet {{{value}}}
Beilstein Reference 1718732
ChEBI
ChEMBL
ChemSpider
ECHA InfoCard 100.000.739
EC Number 200-812-7
Gmelin Reference 59
KEGG
MeSH {{{value}}}
PubChem {{{value}}}
RTECS number PA1490000
UN number 1971
SMILES {{{value}}}
Properties
CH4
Molar mass 16.04 g·mol−1
Appearance Colorless gas
Odor Odorless
Density
  • 0.657 g·L−1 (gas, 25 °C, 1 atm)
  • 0.717 g·L−1 (gas, 0 °C, 1 atm)
  • 422.62 g·L−1 (liquid, −162 °C)[2]
Melting point −182.5 °C; −296.4 °F; 90.7 K
Boiling point −161.50 °C; −258.70 °F; 111.65 K[3]
22.7 mg·L−1
Solubility Soluble in ethanol, diethyl ether, benzene, toluene, methanol, acetone and insoluble in water
log P 1.09
kH 14 nmol·Pa−1·kg−1
Conjugate acid Methanium
Conjugate base Methyl anion
−12.2×10−6 cm3·mol−1
Structure
Td
Tetrahedron
0 D
Thermochemistry
Std enthalpy of
formation
ΔfHo298
−74.87 kJ·mol−1
Std enthalpy of
combustion
ΔcHo298
−891.1 to −890.3 kJ·mol−1
Standard molar
entropy
So298
186.25 J·(K·mol)−1
Specific heat capacity, C 35.69 J·(K·mol)−1
Hazards
NFPA 704

NFPA 704.svg

4
2
0
 
Explosive limits 4.4–17%
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
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Infobox references

Methane is an organic compound with the chemical formula CH
4
. It is an alkane with one carbon atom. It is often found as the main part of natural gas. Methane is a greenhouse gas[5][6] 23 times more effective than carbon dioxide. It is also less stable and slowly oxidates by oxygen to carbon dioxide and water.

Uses[change | change source]

Methane is used in gas taps in places such as kitchens, chemistry classrooms, laboratories, etc. as it burns very easily because of its simple molecular structure.

Molecular structure[change | change source]

Methane's molecular structure is very simple. It is a single carbon atom surrounded by four hydrogen atoms.

Production[change | change source]

Methane can be made by many chemical ways, but usually is found in natural gas and is obtained by fractional distillation, after it has become liquid.

References[change | change source]

  1. 1.0 1.1 "Front Matter". Nomenclature of Organic Chemistry : IUPAC Recommendations and Preferred Names 2013 (Blue Book). Cambridge: The Royal Society of Chemistry. 2014. pp. 3–4. doi:10.1039/9781849733069-FP001. ISBN 978-0-85404-182-4. Methane is a retained name (see P-12.3) that is preferred to the systematic name ‘carbane’, a name never recommended to replace methane, but used to derive the names ‘carbene’ and ‘carbyne’ for the radicals H2C2• and HC3•, respectively.
  2. "Gas Encyclopedia". Retrieved November 7, 2013.
  3. Pubchem. "Methane". pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov.
  4. NOAA Office of Response and Restoration, US GOV. "METHANE". noaa.gov.
  5. White House Unveils Plans to Cut Methane Emissions March 28, 2014 New York Times
  6. Brad Plumer (December 12, 2016). "Methane levels in the atmosphere are now rising at their fastest pace in decades; It's a big problem for climate change". Vox.com. Retrieved 18 December 2016.