Methane

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Methane
Methane-2D-dimensions.svg
Methane-CRC-MW-3D-balls.png
Methane-3D-space-filling.svg
IUPAC name
  • Methane[1] (substitutive)
  • Tetrahydridocarbon[1] (additive)
Identifiers
CAS number 74-82-8
PubChem 297
EC number 200-812-7
KEGG C01438
MeSH Methane
ChEBI CHEBI:16183
RTECS number PA1490000
SMILES C
Beilstein Reference 1718732
Gmelin Reference 59
3DMet B01450
Properties
Molecular formula CH4
Molar mass 16.04 g mol-1
Appearance Colorless gas
Odor Odorless
Density 655.6 μg mL−1
Melting point

-182 °C, 90.7 K, -296 °F

Boiling point

-164--160 °C, 109-113 K, -263--256 °F

Solubility in water 22.7 mg L−1
log P 1.09
kH 14 nmol Pa−1 kg−1
Structure
Molecular shape Tetrahedral
Dipole moment 0 D
Thermochemistry
Std enthalpy of
formation
ΔfHo298
−74.87 kJ mol−1
Std enthalpy of
combustion
ΔcHo298
−891.1–−890.3 kJ mol−1
Standard molar
entropy
So298
186.25 J K−1 mol−1
Specific heat capacity, C 35.69 J K−1 mol−1
Hazards
EU classification Flammable F+
EU Index 601-001-00-4
NFPA 704

NFPA 704.svg

4
1
0
 
Flash point −188 °C
Autoignition
temperature
537 °C
Explosive limits 5–15%
Related compounds
Related alkanes
Related compounds Guanidine
Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C, 100 kPa)

Methane is a hydrocarbon that is a gas at room temperature (20°C). Its molecular formula is CH4, so it has one carbon atom and four hydrogen atoms per molecule. It is often found as the main part of natural gas. Methane is a greenhouse gas[2][3] 23 times more effective than carbon dioxide. It is also less stable and slowly oxidates by oxygen to carbon dioxide and water.

Uses[change | change source]

Methane is used in gas taps in places such as chemistry classrooms, laboratories, etc. as it burns very easily because of its simple molecular structure.

Molecular structure[change | change source]

Methane's molecular structure is very simple. It is a single carbon atom surrounded by four hydrogen atoms.

Production[change | change source]

Methane can be produced by many chemical methods, but usually is found in natural gas and is obtained by fractional distillation, after it is become liquid.

References[change | change source]

  1. 1.0 1.1 "methane (CHEBI:16183)". Chemical Entities of Biological Interest. UK: European Bioinformatics Institute. 17 October 2009. Main. Retrieved 10 October 2011. 
  2. White House Unveils Plans to Cut Methane Emissions March 28, 2014 New York Times
  3. Brad Plumer (December 12, 2016). "Methane levels in the atmosphere are now rising at their fastest pace in decades; It's a big problem for climate change". Vox.com. Retrieved 18 December 2016.