Napoleon II of France

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Napoleon II
Emperor of the French
Preceded by Napoleon I
Succeeded by Louis XVIII (as King of France)
Joseph Bonaparte (as Head of the Bonapartes)
King of Rome
Duke of Reichstadt
Personal details
Born 20 March 1811
Paris, France
Died 22 July 1832(1832-07-22) (aged 21)
Vienna, Austria Flag of the Habsburg Monarchy.svg
Full name Napoléon François Charles Joseph Bonaparte
Father Napoleon I
Mother Marie Louise, Duchess of Parma

Napoléon François Charles Joseph Bonaparte (20 March 1811 – 22 July 1832) was the son of Napoleon and Marie Louise of Austria.

Biography[change | change source]

Early Life[change | change source]

Napoléon II was born in Paris in 1811. In 1814, Napoleon I was defeated by the Sixth Coalition and then forced to resign by his own officers. Napoleon I originally wanted Napoleon II to succeed him, but this was rejected by the coalition. Napoleon II and his mother went into exile in Austria, while Napoleon I was exiled to Elba. In 1815, Napoleon I escaped and retook control of France, but was forced to resign again after his defeat at the Battle of Waterloo.

Emperor of the French[change | change source]

Napoleon was arguably the Emperor of the French in late June and early July 1815.

Life in Austria[change | change source]

Napoleon II as Duke of Reichstadt

Napoleon spent most of his life in Austria, where he was known as Franz. He became the Duke of Reichstadt at the age of 7 and joined the Austrian Army at the age of 12.

Napoleon enjoyed a close relationship with Princess Sophie of Bavaria. It has been claimed that he was the father of Sophie's son, the future Maximilian I of Mexico, but this is widely rejected by historians.

Death[change | change source]

Napoleon died of tuberculosis on July 22, 1832.

Remains[change | change source]

In 1940, Adolf Hitler had Napoleon's remains moved from Vienna to the dome of Les Invalides in Paris. His remains were buried next to his father's for some time, but were later moved to the lower church.

Legacy[change | change source]

Maude Adams as Napoleon II in L'Aiglon

Sources[change | change source]

  • Welschinger, Le roi de Rome, 1811-32, (Paris, 1897)
  • Wertheimer, The Duke of Reichstadt, (London, 1905)