Pelvic inflammatory disease

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Pelvic inflammatory disease or PID is an infection. It is an infection of the female organs:

Sometimes the woman does not feel sick.[2]

The signs of being sick with this sickness can be:

If this illness is not treated it can prevent a woman from having children. It can kill the unborn child and it can be very painful.[1] This disease can be treated and the infection can be cured.


Signs and symptoms[change | change source]

Illustration of pelvic inflammatory disease

A woman with PID can feel sick. Sometimes a woman with PID does not feel sick. A woman with PID can have a fever, pain when the belly is touched, lower abdominal pain, vaginal discharge, painful sex, or unusual bleeding.[3]

Cause[change | change source]

The infection is caused by microorganisms that enter the body through the vagina during sex. The microorganisms travel up thorough uterus and into the inside of the body.[4] There are many microorganisms that cause infection in this way, such as:

Diagnosis[change | change source]

Mucopurulent cervical discharge seen on a Q-tip
Micrograph of salpingitis - a component of pelvic inflammatory disease. H&E stain.

Medical workers use different tests to find the infection. They can perform a medical exam to see evidence of pus and find painful areas.[7] They can use a microscope to see the microorganisms causing the infection.[6] A blood test can detect PID.[8] Two thirds of women were not aware they had PID. Even with no signs of infection, PID can cause serious harm.

Similar symptoms[change | change source]

Other causes can produce signs to PID symptoms including: appendicitis, a complicated pregnancy, swollen or twisted ovaries and endometriosis.[1][9] A woman is more likely to get Pelvic inflammatory disease if she has had it before. She is more likely to have the infection if she has recently had sex, started menstruation, had an Intrauterine device put inside her uterus or if her sex partner has a sexually transmitted infection.[10]

Prevention[change | change source]

Medical testing for sexually transmitted infections is important for prevention. The risk of getting PID can be lowered by:

  • Using condoms
  • Seeking medical help if you are experiencing symptoms of PID.
  • Seeking medical help after learning that your sex partner or someone you had sex with in the past had a sexually transmitted infection.
  • Seeking medical exams regularly to test for PID with no symptoms.[11]
  • Asking your current sex partner if they have an infection. Insist they be tested and cured before sex.
  • Avoiding sex after delivery, miscarriage, or abortion.
  • Practicing abstinence[12]

Treatment[change | change source]

If your medical provider thinks you are infected, treatment is usually started right away. This is because serious results may happen from delayed treatment. Sometimes the medical provider will use a test to help find the infection. Curing the infection with antibiotic medications is normal. Improvement should occur quickly but if not, the woman is told to find more medical attention. Treating sex partners for possible infections will help in treatment and prevention of getting the infection again.[13]

The spread of the disease[change | change source]

About 106 million cases of PID occurred around the world in 2008. About 1.5% of young women yearly get the infection. One million women in the United States get PID every year.

Being cured[change | change source]

Although the PID infection may be cured the damage from the infection may not go away.[14] This makes finding the infection early so important. Treatment by medical providers will prevent damage to the female reproductive organs.

References[change | change source]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 Mitchell, C; Prabhu, M (December 2013). "Pelvic inflammatory disease: current concepts in pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment.". Infectious disease clinics of North America 27 (4): 793–809. PMID 24275271. 
  2. 2.0 2.1 "Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID) Clinical Manifestations and Sequelae". cdc.gov. October 2014. Retrieved 21 February 2015.
  3. "Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) Symptoms; Diseases and Conditions". Mayo Clinic. Retrieved 2018-08-11.
  4. Van De Graaff, Kent M.; Fox, Stuart Ira (1989). Concepts of Human Anatomy and Physiology. Dubuque, Iowa: William C. Brown Publishers. p. 959. ISBN 978-0-697-05675-7.
  5. 5.0 5.1 DeCherney, Alan H.; Nathan, Lauren (2003). Current obstetric & gynecologic diagnosis & treatment. New York: Lange Medical Books/McGraw-Hill. ISBN 978-0-8385-1401-6. OCLC 150148652.
  6. 6.0 6.1 Loscalzo, Joseph; et al. (2001). Cecil essentials of medicine. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders. ISBN 978-0-7216-8179-5. OCLC 43051599. Explicit use of et al. in: |author= (help)
  7. Tuboovarian complex by Emily C. Wasco and Gillian Lieberman MD. Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center. October 17, 2003
  8. Reljic M, Gorisek B (February 1998). "C-reactive protein and the treatment of pelvic inflammatory disease". Int J Gynaecol Obstet 60 (2): 143–50. PMID 9509952. 
  9. "Pelvic Pain in Women". Patient.co.uk. Retrieved 2015-03-12.
  10. "Pelvic Inflammatory Disease". CDC Fact Sheet. Retrieved 2015-03-12.
  11. Smith KJ, Cook RL, Roberts MS (2007). "Time from sexually transmitted infection acquisition to pelvic inflammatory disease development: influence on the cost-effectiveness of different screening intervals". Value Health 10 (5): 358–66. doi:10.1111/j.1524-4733.2007.00189.x. PMID 17888100. 
  12. "Prevention - STD Information from CDC". Center For Disease Control. Retrieved 2015-02-21.
  13. "Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID) Partner Management and Public Health Measures". Centers for Disease Control. October 2014. Archived from the original on February 22, 2015. Retrieved February 21, 2015. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  14. "Pelvic Inflammatory Disease". MedScape. Retrieved 2015-03-10.

Other websites[change | change source]