Restorationism, also called Christian primitivism is a movement that tries to model itself after what is known or believed of the Early Christian Church. Over the course of time, different groups have used the term, with different meanings:
- In the Middle Ages, most groups were active during the time when the Protestant Reformation happened. In the 15th century, a movement called the Lollards started. Another group with similar ideas was the Brethren of the Common Life.
- Movements such as the Hussites, the Anabaptists, the Landmark Baptists, the Puritans and the Waldensians were called Primitive, as is the Primitive Methodist Church.
- After the Protestant Reformation, the Protestant movement split in many groups. Some of these groups, such as the Churches of Christ and the Baptists are more restorationist than others. Other movements include the Glasites, in Scotland. In the United States, there was a Restoration Movement, which is also known as Stone-Campbell Movement as well as the Mormons, Christadelphians, Christian Scientists, and Jehovah's Witnesses.
- A number of Pentecostal movements has been described as restorationist: Among them are the Assemblies of God, and the evangelical British New Church Movement
- Some movements use the term to say that Jewish people must be "restored" to the Promised Land. These movements are usually called Christian Restorationism or Christian Zionism.
- The term has also been used in reference to Muslim movements with similar aims, such as Salafism, Muwahhidism, Ghair Muqallids and Quranism.
- In the Philippines, Iglesia ni Cristo sees itself as restorationist.