Saturn V

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Saturn V
Apollo 11 Launch - GPN-2000-000630.jpg
The launch of Apollo 11 on Saturn V SA-506, July 16, 1969
Function
Manufacturer
Country of originUnited States
Project cost$6.417 billion in 1964–1973 dollars[1] (~$42 billion in 2018 dollars)
Cost per launch$185 million in 1969–1971 dollars[2] ($1.16 billion in 2016 value), of which $110 million was for vehicle.[3]
Size
Height363.0 ft (110.6 m)
Diameter33.0 ft (10.1 m)
Mass6,540,000 lb (2,970,000 kg)[4]
Stages2-3
Capacity
Payload to LEO (90 nmi (170 km), 30° inclination)310,000 lb (140,000 kg)[5][6][note 1]
Payload to TLI107,100 lb (48,600 kg)[4]
Associated rockets
FamilySaturn
DerivativesSaturn INT-21
Comparable
Launch history
StatusRetired
Launch sitesLC-39, Kennedy Space Center
Total launches13
Successes12
Failures0
Partial failures1 (Apollo 6)
First flightNovember 9, 1967 (AS-501[note 2] Apollo 4)
Last flightMay 14, 1973 (AS-513 Skylab)
First stage – S-IC
Length138.0 ft (42.1 m)
Diameter33.0 ft (10.1 m)
Empty mass287,000 lb (130,000 kg)
Gross mass5,040,000 lb (2,290,000 kg)
Engines5 Rocketdyne F-1
Thrust7,891,000 lbf (35,100 kN) sea level
Specific impulse263 seconds (2.58 km/s) sea level
Burn time168 seconds
FuelRP-1/LOX
Second stage – S-II
Length81.5 ft (24.8 m)
Diameter33.0 ft (10.1 m)
Empty mass88,400 lb (40,100 kg)[note 3]
Gross mass1,093,900 lb (496,200 kg)[note 3]
Engines5 Rocketdyne J-2
Thrust1,155,800 lbf (5,141 kN) vacuum
Specific impulse421 seconds (4.13 km/s) vacuum
Burn time360 seconds
FuelLH2/LOX
Third stage – S-IVB
Length61.6 ft (18.8 m)
Diameter21.7 ft (6.6 m)
Empty mass29,700 lb (13,500 kg)[4][note 4]
Gross mass271,000 lb (123,000 kg)[note 4]
Engines1 Rocketdyne J-2
Thrust232,250 lbf (1,033.1 kN) vacuum
Specific impulse421 seconds (4.13 km/s) vacuum
Burn time165 + 335 seconds (2 burns)
FuelLH2/LOX

Saturn V was the kind of launch vehicle used by NASA in the Apollo program. The Saturn V carried Apollo 11 and the people in it to the Moon in 1969. Much of the rocket was planned by German engineer and scientist Wernher von Braun. 32 Saturn rockets were sent up to space, and the Saturn V was the largest.[7] 15 Saturn V rockets were made and 13 were sent up to space.[7] There were two Saturn V launches with no people in them, and the first manned Apollo flight using a Saturn V was Apollo 8 sent around the Moon on December 21, 1968.[8]

Wernher von Braun standing by the five very big engines of the Saturn V in 1961

The Saturn V rocket was a three part machine. It stood 111 metres (363 feet) high and weighed 2,903,020 kilograms (6,400,060 pounds). The first rockets were able to carry 44,600 kilograms (98,300 pounds). This was went up to 46,800 kilograms (103,200 pounds) for the later Apollo flights.[7] The first and second stages gave the power to lift the rocket off the Earth. The first and second stages each had five engines. The first stage burned kerosene and liquid oxygen together. The other stages burned liquid oxygen with liquid hydrogen.[7]

The first stage engines burned for 168 seconds which was able to lift Apollo to a height of 67 kilometres (42 miles) and about 93 kilometres (58 miles) away from the launch pad. The second stage burned for about 8 minutes to take Apollo through the upper atmosphere. At this time it was going 25,182 kilometres per hour (15,647 miles per hour).

The third stage was used for 2 minutes and 30 seconds to put Apollo into an Earth orbit. This was at a height of 191.2 kilometres (118.8 miles) above the Earth. The third stage was started again and burned for 6 minutes to make the speed go up to 40,320 kilometres per hour (25,050 miles per hour) needed to send Apollo off to the Moon.[8]

Related pages[change | change source]

Notes[change | change source]

  1. Includes mass of Apollo Command/Service Modules, Apollo Lunar Module, Spacecraft/LM Adapter, Saturn V Instrument Unit, S-IVB stage, and propellant for translunar injection
  2. Serial numbers were initially assigned by the Marshall Space Flight Center in the format "SA-5xx" (for Saturn-Apollo). By the time the rockets achieved flight, the Manned Spacecraft Center started using the format "AS-5xx" (for Apollo-Saturn).
  3. 3.0 3.1 Includes S-II/S-IVB interstage
  4. 4.0 4.1 Includes Instrument Unit

References[change | change source]

  1. Cite error: The named reference budget was used but no text was provided for refs named (see the help page).
  2. "SP-4221 The Space Shuttle Decision- Chapter 6: Economics and the Shuttle". NASA. Retrieved 2011-01-15.
  3. "sp4206".
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 "Ground Ignition Weights". NASA.gov. Retrieved November 8, 2014.
  5. Alternatives for Future U.S. Space-Launch Capabilities (PDF), The Congress of the United States. Congressional Budget Office, October 2006, pp. X, 1, 4, 9
  6. Thomas P. Stafford (1991), America at the Threshold – Report of the Synthesis Group on America's Space Exploration Initiative, p. 31
  7. 7.0 7.1 7.2 7.3 "Saturn V: America's Moon Rocket". airandspace.si.edu. 2007. Retrieved 12 August 2012.
  8. 8.0 8.1 Furniss, Tim (2001). The History of Space Vehicles. London: Grange Books. ISBN 1-84013-370-8.

Other websites[change | change source]

NASA sites[change | change source]

Other sites[change | change source]