From Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Definition[change source]

Cancer, is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth, with the potential to invade or spread, to other parts of the body.[1][2] Cancer are different than benign tumors, which do not spread.[2]

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Symptoms[change source]

Possible signs and symptoms include, a lump, abnormal bleeding, prolonged cough, unexplained weight loss, and a change in bowel movements.[3]

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Symptoms - Other reasons[change source]

While these symptoms may indicate cancer, they can also have other causes.[3] Over 100 types of cancers, affect humans.[2]

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Tobacco use, is the cause of about 22% of all cancer deaths.[1]

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Other Causes 1[change source]

Another 10% are, due to obesity, poor diet, lack of physical activity, or excessive drinking of alcohol.[1][4][5]


Other Causes 2[change source]

Other factors include, certain infections, and exposure to ionizing radiation and environmental pollutants.[6]

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Infectious Causes[change source]

In the developing world, 15% of cancers are due to infections such as, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, human papillomavirus infection, Epstein–Barr virus, and [[HIV].[1]

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Genetic causes[change source]

Approximately 5–10% of cancers, are due to inherited genetic defects, from a person's parents.[7]

Diagnosis[change source]

When cancer is suspected because of signs and symptoms, or screening tests, [1] it will be further investigated by medical imaging, and confirmed by biopsy.[8]

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Prevention[change source]

Many cancers, can be prevented by not smoking, and maintaining a healthy weight.[9]

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Other Preventative Measures[change source]

Limiting alcohol use, eating plenty of fruits, vegetables, and whole grains, as well as avoiding red meat, and excessive sunlight, all lower the risk of cancer.[9][10]

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Vaccination[change source]

Vaccination against certain infectious diseases, such as, the human papilloma virus, decreases the risk of cancer.[11]

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Screening[change source]

Early detection through screening, is useful for cervical, and colorectal cancer.[12]

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Screening 2[change source]

The benefits of screening in breast cancer are controversial.[12][13]

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Treatment[change source]

Cancer, is usually treated with some combination of radiation therapy, surgery, chemotherapy, or targeted therapy.[1][14]

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Pain Management[change source]

Pain, and symptom management are an important part of care.[1]


Survival[change source]

The chance of survival, depends on the type of cancer, and extent of disease at the start of treatment.[15]

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Epidemiology[change source]

Females[change source]

In females, the most common types are, breast cancer, colorectal cancer, lung cancer, and cervical cancer.[15]

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Males[change source]

The most common types of cancer in males are, lung cancer, prostate cancer, colorectal cancer, and stomach cancer.[16]

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Children[change source]

In children, acute lymphoblastic leukemia, and brain tumors are most common, except in Africa where non-Hodgkin lymphoma occurs more often.[17]

US Navy 100507-N-9094S-375 Logistics Specialist Seaman Sergio Torres draws pictures with a child at the Vladivostok children's cancer ward.jpg

References[change source]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 "Cancer". World Health Organization. 12 September 2018. Retrieved 19 December 2018.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 "Defining Cancer". National Cancer Institute. 17 September 2007. Retrieved 28 March 2018.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  3. 3.0 3.1 "Cancer – Signs and symptoms". NHS Choices. Archived from the original on 8 June 2014. Retrieved 10 June 2014.
  4. "Obesity and Cancer Risk". National Cancer Institute. 3 January 2012. Archived from the original on 4 July 2015. Retrieved 4 July 2015.
  5. Jayasekara H, MacInnis RJ, Room R, English DR (May 2016). "Long-Term Alcohol Consumption and Breast, Upper Aero-Digestive Tract and Colorectal Cancer Risk: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis". Alcohol and Alcoholism. 51 (3): 315–30. doi:10.1093/alcalc/agv110. PMID 26400678.
  6. Anand P, Kunnumakkara AB, Sundaram C, Harikumar KB, Tharakan ST, Lai OS, Sung B, Aggarwal BB (September 2008). "Cancer is a preventable disease that requires major lifestyle changes". Pharmaceutical Research. 25 (9): 2097–116. doi:10.1007/s11095-008-9661-9. PMC 2515569. PMID 18626751.
  7. "Heredity and Cancer". American Cancer Society. Archived from the original on 2 August 2013. Retrieved 22 July 2013.
  8. "How is cancer diagnosed?". American Cancer Society. 29 January 2013. Archived from the original on 14 July 2014. Retrieved 10 June 2014.
  9. 9.0 9.1 Kushi LH, Doyle C, McCullough M, Rock CL, Demark-Wahnefried W, Bandera EV, Gapstur S, Patel AV, Andrews K, Gansler T (2012). "American Cancer Society Guidelines on nutrition and physical activity for cancer prevention: reducing the risk of cancer with healthy food choices and physical activity". CA Cancer J Clin. 62 (1): 30–67. doi:10.3322/caac.20140. PMID 22237782.
  10. Parkin DM, Boyd L, Walker LC (December 2011). "16. The fraction of cancer attributable to lifestyle and environmental factors in the UK in 2010". British Journal of Cancer. 105 Suppl 2: S77–81. doi:10.1038/bjc.2011.489. PMC 3252065. PMID 22158327.
  11. Ljubojevic S, Skerlev M (2014). "HPV-associated diseases". Clinics in Dermatology. 32 (2): 227–34. doi:10.1016/j.clindermatol.2013.08.007. PMID 24559558.
  12. 12.0 12.1 World Cancer Report 2014. World Health Organization. 2014. pp. Chapter 4.7. ISBN 978-92-832-0429-9. Archived from the original on 12 July 2017.
  13. Gøtzsche PC, Jørgensen KJ (June 2013). "Screening for breast cancer with mammography". The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 6 (6): CD001877. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD001877.pub5. PMID 23737396.
  14. National Cancer Institute (26 February 2018). "Targeted Cancer Therapies". Retrieved 28 March 2018.
  15. 15.0 15.1 World Cancer Report 2014. World Health Organization. 2014. pp. Chapter 1.1. ISBN 978-92-832-0429-9. Archived from the original on 12 July 2017.
  16. World Cancer Report 2014. World Health Organization. 2014. pp. Chapter 1.1. ISBN 978-92-832-0429-9.
  17. World Cancer Report 2014. World Health Organization. 2014. pp. Chapter 1.3. ISBN 978-92-832-0429-9. Archived from the original on 12 July 2017.