Zwarte Piet (pronounced [ˈzʋɑrtə ˈpit], Dutch for "Black Pete"; Luxembourgish: Schwaarze Péiter, Indonesian: Pit Hitam, West Frisian: Swarte Pyt) is the friend of Saint Nicholas (Dutch: Sinterklaas, West Frisian: Sinteklaas, Luxembourgish: Kleeschen, Indonesian: Sinterklas) in the folklore of the Low Countries.
The character first appeared in an 1850 book by Amsterdam schoolteacher Jan Schenkman.
References[change | change source]
- Forbes, Bruce David (2007). Christmas: A Candid History. University of California Press. p. 54.
- Carleton, Marie-Helene. "Zwarte Piet: Black Pete is 'Dutch racism in full display'". www.aljazeera.com.
Protesters have rallied against the Dutch blackface tradition
- Welle (www.dw.com), Deutsche. "Dutch Zwarte Piet reignites blackface debate | DW | 16.11.2019". DW.COM.
Zwarte Pieten ... who are played by white people in full blackface
- "This notorious Christmas character is dividing a country". National Geographic News. 6 December 2018.
Zwarte Piet ... who usually appears as a blackface character
- Henley, Jon (18 September 2019). "Dutch Saint Nicholas parade to replace blackface with 'sooty faces'" – via www.theguardian.com.
Zwarte Piet, Sinterklaas’s helper, has traditionally been portrayed by adults wearing gaudy costumes, large gold earrings, afro-style wigs, red lipstick and full blackface makeup
- "So Long, Black Pete : Rough Translation". NPR.org.
- Leopold, Todd. "'Blackface': Dutch holiday tradition or racism?". CNN.
Black Peter, a goofy, singing, candy-giving Renaissance-clad figure in blackface