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Birth name Aaliyah Dana Haughton
Born January 16, 1979(1979-01-16)
Brooklyn, New York City, New York, United States
Origin Detroit, Michigan, United States
Died August 25, 2001(2001-08-25) (aged 22)
Marsh Harbour, Abaco Islands, The Bahamas
Genres R&B, Pop
Occupations Singer, Dancer, model & Actress
Years active 1991–2001
Labels Blackground Records, Jive, Atlantic, Virgin, Universal
Website Aaliyah.com, AaliyahICare4U.com

Aaliyah Dana Haughton (better known simply as Aaliyah; January 16, 1979 – August 25, 2001) was an American recording artist and actress.

Aaliyah was born in Brooklyn, New York, and raised in Detroit, Michigan. From her youth, she began to sing: she did singing competitions, castings and shows. Her career began in 1994 with the release of her debut album Age Ain't Nothing But A Number. She continued going to the High School of the Performing Arts after this.

In 1996, Aaliyah's second album, One in a Million, was released with R. Kelly as producer. Aaliyah always wanted to act and she got the leading role in Romeo Must Die (2000). Then she starred in Queen of the Damned in 2002.

In 2001, she returned to music with her third album called Aaliyah, She put a lot into it, as a singer and as an executive producer. She worked on it with her uncle. She died on August 25, 2001 in a plane crash in the Bahamas. She was going to be in the movie The Matrix Reloaded, but the filmmakers had to use another person after she died.

Personal life[change | change source]

Aaliyah Dana Haughton was born in Brooklyn, New York.[1] She was of African American descent, with Native American heritage from her grandmother.[2][3] She was the second and younger child of Diane and Michael Haughton.[2] Aaliyah was enrolled in voice lessons by her mother,[1] and she would perform at weddings, church choir and charity events.[4] When she was five years old, her family moved to Detroit, Michigan, where she was raised along with her older brother, Rashad.[5][6] She attended a Catholic school, Gesu Elementary, where she received a part in the stage play named Annie in first grade. From then on, she was determined to become an entertainer.[7]

Aaliyah's mother was a vocalist. Her uncle, Barry Hankerson, was an entertainment lawyer who had been married to Gladys Knight.[6] As a child, Aaliyah traveled with Knight and worked with an agent in New York to audition for commercials and television programs, including Family Matters; she went on to appear on Star Search at the age of ten.[1][8] She then auditioned for several record labels and appeared in concerts alongside Knight at age 11.[6][9]

Aaliyah attended the Detroit High School for the Performing Arts, where she majored in drama and graduated in 1997.[9][10][11] Aaliyah began her acting career that same year.[12]

Career[change | change source]

After Hankerson signed a distribution deal with Jive Records, he signed Aaliyah to his label named Blackground Records when Aaliyah was 12 years old.[13][14] Hankerson later introduced her to recording artist and producer R. Kelly.[9] Kelly became Aaliyah's mentor, as well as lead songwriter and producer of the album, which was recorded when she was 14.[1][14][15] Aaliyah's debut album, Age Ain't Nothing but a Number, was released under Jive and Blackground Records; the album debut at number 24 on the Billboard 200 chart, selling 74,000 copies in its first week.[16][17] It ultimately peaked at number 18 on the Billboard 200 and sold over three million copies in the United States, where it was certified two times Platinum by the RIAA.[17][18][19] In Canada, the album sold over 50,000 copies and was certified gold by the CRIA.[20] Aaliyah's debut single, "Back & Forth", topped the Billboard Hot R&B/Hip-Hop Songs chart for three weeks and was certified Gold by the RIAA.[19][21] The second single, a cover of The Isley Brothers' "At Your Best (You Are Love)", peaked at number six on the Billboard Hot 100 and was also certified Gold by the RIAA.[19][21] The title track, "Age Ain't Nothing but a Number", peaked at number 75 on the Hot 100.[21] Additionally, she released "The Thing I Like" as part of the soundtrack to the 1994 movie A Low Down Dirty Shame.[11]

In 1996, Aaliyah left Jive Records and signed with Atlantic Records.[9] She worked with record producers Timbaland and Missy Elliott, who contributed to her second studio album, One in a Million.[6] The album yielded the single "If Your Girl Only Knew", which topped the Billboard Hot R&B/Hip-Hop Songs for two weeks.[21] It also generated the singles "Hot like Fire" and "4 Page Letter". The following year, Aaliyah was featured on Timbaland & Magoo's debut single, "Up Jumps da Boogie".[22] One in a Million peaked at number 18 on the Billboard 200,[18] selling over 3.7 million copies in the United States and over eight million copies worldwide.[23][24] The album was certified double platinum by the RIAA on June 16, 1997, denoting shipments of two million copies.[19]

She played as herself in the police drama television series New York Undercover.[11] During this time, Aaliyah participated in the Children's Benefit Concert, a charity concert that took place at the Beacon Theatre in New York.[25] Aaliyah also became the spokesperson for the Tommy Hilfiger Corporation.[26] She contributed on the soundtrack album for the Fox Animation Studios animated feature Anastasia, performing a cover version of "Journey to the Past" which earned songwriters Lynn Ahrens and Stephen Flaherty a nomination for the Academy Award for Best Original Song.[11][24][27] Aaliyah performed the song at the 1998 Academy Awards ceremony and became the youngest singer to perform at the event.[28] The song "Are You That Somebody?" was featured on the Dr. Dolittle soundtrack, which earned Aaliyah her first Grammy Award nomination.[29] The song peaked at number 21 on the Hot 100.[30]

Aaliyah's first major movie role was in Romeo Must Die. Aaliyah starred opposite martial artist Jet Li, playing a couple who fall in love amid their warring families. It grossed US$18.6 million in its first weekend, ranking number two at the box office.[31] In addition to acting, Aaliyah served as an executive producer of the film soundtrack, where she contributed four songs.[32] "Try Again" was released as a single from the soundtrack; the song topped the Billboard Hot 100, making Aaliyah the first artist to top the chart based solely on airplay; this led the song to be released in a 12" vinyl and 7" single.[21][33] The music video won the Best Female Video and Best Video from a Film awards at the 2000 MTV Video Music Awards.[34] It also earned her a Grammy Award nomination for Best Female R&B Vocalist.[35] The soundtrack went on to sell 1.5 million copies in the United States.[36] After completing Romeo Must Die, Aaliyah began to work on her second film, Queen of the Damned. She played the role of an ancient vampire, Queen Akasha, which she described as a "manipulative, crazy, sexual being".[14] She was scheduled to film for the sequels of The Matrix as the character Zee.[9][37]

Talent[change | change source]

Aaliyah had a vocal range of a soprano.[9] With the release of her debut single "Back & Forth", Dimitri Ehrlich of Entertainment Weekly expressed that Aaliyah's "silky vocals are more agile than those of self-proclaimed queen of hip-hop soul Mary J. Blige."[38] Aaliyah described her sound as "street but sweet", which featured her "gentle" vocals over a "hard" beat.[39] Though Aaliyah did not write any of her own material,[9] her lyrics were described as in-depth.[40][41] She incorporated R&B, pop and hip hop into her music.[6][42] Her songs were often uptempo and melancholy, revolving around "matters of the heart".[43] Her songs have been said to have "crisp production" and "staccato arrangements" that "extend genre boundaries" while containing "old-school" soul music. When she experimented with other genres, such as Latin pop and heavy metal, critics did not like the attempt.[43] As her albums progressed, writers felt that Aaliyah acted more older, calling her progress a "declaration of strength and independence".[41][44] Stephen Thomas Erlewine of Allmusic described her eponymous album, Aaliyah, as "a statement of maturity and a stunning artistic leap forward" and called it one of the strongest urban soul records of its time.[41] She portrayed "unfamiliar sounds, styles and emotions", but managed to please critics with the contemporary sound it contained.[41] Ernest Hardy of Rolling Stone felt that Aaliyah reflected a stronger technique, where she gave her best vocal performance.[45] Others felt that she was "satisfying rather than extraordinary", stating that she added little to modern R&B.[46][47]

As an artist, Aaliyah often said that she was inspired by a number of performers. These include Michael Jackson, Stevie Wonder, Sade, En Vogue, Nine Inch Nails, Korn, Prince, Naughty by Nature, Johnny Mathis and Janet Jackson.[48] Aaliyah said that Michael Jackson's Thriller was her "favorite album" and that "nothing will ever top Thriller."[48] She stated that she admired Sade because "she stays true to her style no matter what... she's an amazing artist, an amazing performer... and I absolutely love her."[48] Aaliyah expressed she had always desired to work with Janet Jackson, whom she had drawn frequent comparison to over the course of her career, stating "I admire her a great deal. She's a total performer... I'd love to do a duet with Janet Jackson."[48][49][50][51] Jackson reciprocated Aaliyah's affections, commenting "I've loved her from the beginning because she always comes out and does something different, musically." Jackson also stated she would have enjoyed collaborating with Aaliyah.[48]

Aaliyah focused on her public image throughout her career. She often wore baggy clothes and sunglasses because she wanted to be herself.[52] She described her image as being "important… to differentiate yourself from the rest of the pack".[53] She often wore black clothing, starting a trend for similar fashion among women in United States and Japan.[9][54] Aaliyah participated in fashion designer Tommy Hilfiger's All America Tour and was featured in Tommy Jean ads, which depicted her in boxer shorts, baggy jeans and a tube top. Hilfiger's brother, Andy, called it "a whole new look" that was "classy but sexy".[54] When she changed her hairstyle, Aaliyah took her mother's advice to cover her left eye, much like Veronica Lake.[55] In 1998, she hired a personal trainer to keep in shape, and exercised five days a week and ate diet foods.[56] Aaliyah was praised for her "clean-cut image" and "moral values".[57]

Death[change | change source]

On August 25, 2001, at 6:45 pm (EST), Aaliyah and various members of the record company boarded a twin-engine Cessna 402B (registration N8097W) at the Marsh Harbour Airport in Abaco Islands, The Bahamas, to travel to the Opa-locka Airport in Florida, after they completed filming the music video for the single "Rock the Boat".[58] They had a flight scheduled the following day, August 26, but with filming finishing early, Aaliyah and her entourage were eager to return to the United States and made the decision to leave immediately. The designated airplane was smaller than the Cessna 404 in which they had originally flown. The whole party and all of the equipment were accommodated on board.[59] As a result, when the aircraft attempted to depart, it was over its maximum takeoff weight by 700 pounds (320 kg) and was carrying one excess passenger, according to its certification.[60] The plane crashed shortly after takeoff, about 200 feet (60 m) from the runway.[58] Aaliyah and the eight others on board, pilot Luis Morales III, hair stylist Eric Forman, Anthony Dodd, security guard Scott Gallin, video producer Douglas Kratz, stylist Christopher Maldonado, and Blackground Records employees Keith Wallace and Gina Smith, were all killed.[61]

According to findings from an inquest, conducted by the coroner's office in The Bahamas, Aaliyah suffered from "severe burns and a blow to the head", in addition to severe shock and a weak heart.[62] The coroner theorized that, even if Aaliyah had survived the crash, her recovery would have been virtually impossible given the severity of her injuries.[63] The National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) report stated that "the airplane was seen lifting off the runway, and then nose down, impacting in a marsh on the south side of the departure end of runway 27 and then exploding in flames."[64] It indicated that the pilot was not approved to pilot the plane he was attempting to fly. Morales falsely obtained his Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) license by showing hundreds of hours never flown, and he may also have falsified how many hours he had flown in order to get a job with his employer, Blackhawk International Airways.[65] Additionally, an autopsy performed on Morales revealed traces of cocaine and alcohol in his system.[66] The NTSB reported that the maximum allowed gross weight of the plane was "substantially exceeded" and that the center of gravity was positioned beyond its rear limit.[64] John Frank of the Cessna Pilots Association stated that the plane was "definitely overloaded".[67]

The day of the crash was Morales' first official day with Blackhawk International Airways, an FAA Part 135 single-pilot operation. Morales was not registered with the FAA to fly for Blackhawk. As a result of the accident, Aaliyah's parents filed a wrongful death lawsuit against the company, which was settled out of court for an undisclosed amount.[68] Barry & Sons, Inc., a corporation formed in 1992 to develop, promote and capitalize Aaliyah and to oversee the production and distribution of her records and music videos, brought an unsuccessful lawsuit in the New York Supreme Court against Instinct Productions LLC, the company that was hired in August 2001 to produce the music video for "Rock the Boat". The case was dismissed because of New York's wrongful death statute only permitting certain people to recover damages for wrongful death.[69][70]

Legacy[change | change source]

An open gate revealing the road to enter a cemetery, surrounded by grass, flowers and trees.
The entrance to Ferncliff Cemetery, where Aaliyah is interred in a crypt

Aaliyah's funeral was held on August 31, 2001, at the Saint Ignatius Loyola Church in Manhattan. Her body was set in a silver casket, which was carried in a glass hearse and was drawn by horse.[71] An estimated 800 mourners were in attendance of the procession.[15][72] Among those in attendance at the private ceremony were Missy Elliott, Timbaland, Gladys Knight, Lil' Kim and Sean Combs.[71][73][74] After the service, 22 white doves were released to symbolize each year of Aaliyah's life.[75] She was interred in a crypt in a private room in the Rosewood Mausoleum at the Ferncliff Cemetery.[76]

The week after Aaliyah's death, her third studio album, Aaliyah, rose from number 19 to number one on the Billboard 200.[77] "Rock the Boat" was released as a posthumous single. The music video premiered on BET's Access Granted; it became the most viewed and highest rated episode in the history of the show.[78] The song peaked at number 14 on the Billboard Hot 100 and number two on the Billboard Hot R&B/Hip-Hop Songs chart.[79] It was also included on the Now That's What I Call Music! 8 compilation series; a portion of the album's profits was donated to the Aaliyah Memorial Fund.[80] The following two singles from Aaliyah, "More than a Woman" and "I Care 4 U", peaked within the top 25 of the Billboard Hot 100.[79] The album was certified double Platinum by the RIAA and sold 2.95 million copies in the United States.[19][81][82] "More than a Woman" reached number one in the UK singles chart making Aaliyah the first deceased artist to reach number one in the UK single chart.[83] "More than a Woman" was replaced by George Harrison's "My Sweet Lord" which is the only time in the UK singles chart history where a dead artist has replaced another dead artist at number one.[84]

She won two posthumous awards at the American Music Awards of 2002; Favorite Female R&B Artist and Favorite R&B/Soul Album for Aaliyah.[85] Her second and final movie, Queen of the Damned, was released in February 2002. Before its release, Aaliyah's brother, Rashad, re-dubbed some of her lines during post-production.[86][87] It grossed US$15.2 million in its first weekend, ranking number one at the box office.[88] On the first anniversary of Aaliyah's death, a candlelight vigil was held in Times Square, where millions of fans observed a moment of silence. Throughout the United States, radio stations played her music in remembrance.[89] In December 2002, a collection of previously unreleased material was released as Aaliyah's first posthumous album, I Care 4 U. A portion of the proceeds was donated to the Aaliyah Memorial Fund, a program that benefits the Revlon UCLA Women Cancer Research Program and Harlem's Sloan Kettering Cancer Center.[90] It debuted at number three on the Billboard 200, selling 280,000 copies in its first week.[91] The album's lead single, "Miss You", peaked at number three on the Billboard Hot 100 and topped the Hot R&B/Hip-Hop Songs chart.[79] In August of the following year, clothing retailer Christian Dior donated profits from sales in honor of Aaliyah.[92]

Aaliyah was signed to appear in several future movies, including Honey (recast to Jessica Alba).[93] Some Kind of Blue and a Whitney Houston-produced remake of the 1976 movie Sparkle were canceled due to Aaliyah's death.[3][94] Before her death, Aaliyah had filmed part of her role in The Matrix Reloaded and was scheduled to appear in The Matrix Revolutions as Zee.[22] The role was later recast to Nona Gaye.[37] Aaliyah's scenes were later included in the tribute section of the Matrix Ultimate Collection series.[95]

In 2005, Aaliyah's second compilation album, Ultimate Aaliyah was released in the UK by Blackground Records.[96] Ultimate Aaliyah is a three disc set, which included a greatest hits audio CD and a DVD.[96] Andy Kellman of Allmusic remarked "Ultimate Aaliyah adequately represents the shortened career of a tremendous talent who benefited from some of the best songwriting and production work by Timbaland, Missy Elliott, and R. Kelly."[96] A documentary movie Aaliyah Live in Amsterdam was released in 2011., shortly before the tenth anniversary of Aaliyah's death. The documentary, by Pogus Caesar, contained previously unseen footage shot of her career beginnings in 1995 when she was appearing in the Netherlands.[97]

In 2012 music producer Jeffrey "J-Dub" Walker via twitter said "Just got great news today; the smash unreleased song called "Steady Ground" I produced on #Aaliyah is gonna be on her upcoming album". Walker co-wrote "I Refuse" and "What if" from Aaliyah's third self-titled album and produced the song "Steady Ground" for her 'One in a Million' album. This second proposed posthumous album would feature this song using demo vocals since Walker claims the originals were somehow lost by his sound engineer. However, Walker's original tweet announcing this event has since been removed, and Aaliyah's brother, via Twitter, has stated that "no official album [is] being released and supported by the Haughton family."[98]

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