New York City

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New York City
City
City of New York
Clockwise from top: Midtown Manhattan, the United Nations Headquarters, the Statue of Liberty, the Brooklyn Bridge, Central Park, Times Square, and the Unisphere in Queens

Flag

Seal
Nickname(s): "The Big Apple", "Gotham", "The Center of the Universe","Liberty City", "The City That Never Sleeps",[1] "The Capital of the World",[2][3][4] "Metropolis".[5]
Location in New York State
New York City is located in USA
New York
Location in the United States
Coordinates: 40°40.2′N 73°56.4′W / 40.67°N 73.94°W / 40.67; -73.94Coordinates: 40°40.2′N 73°56.4′W / 40.67°N 73.94°W / 40.67; -73.94[6]
Country  United States of America
State  New York
Historic colony

Kingdom of Great Britain Colony of New York


Counties Bronx, Kings, New York, Queens, Richmond
Settled 1624
Incorporated 1898
Government[7]
 • Type Mayor–Council
 • Body New York City Council
 • Mayor Bill de Blasio (D)
Area[6]
 • Total 468.5 sq mi (1,213 km2)
 • Land 302.6 sq mi (784 km2)
 • Water 165.8 sq mi (429 km2)
 • Metro 11,842 sq mi (30,670 km2)
Elevation[8] 33 ft (10 m)
Population [12]
 • Estimate (2012) 8,336,697[10][11]
 • Rank 1st
 • Density 27,550/sq mi (10,640/km2)
 • Metro 18,897,109 (1st)
 • CSA 22,214,083[9] (1st)
Demonym New Yorker
Time zone Eastern (EST) (UTC-5)
 • Summer (DST) EDT (UTC-4)
ZIP code(s) 100xx–104xx, 11004–05, 111xx–114xx, 116xx
Area code(s) 212, 347, 646, 718, 917, 929
FIPS code 36-51000
GNIS feature ID 975772

New York City is the largest city in the United States and New York. Over 8 million people live in it, and over 22 million people live in and around it. It is in the state of New York, which is in the northeastern United States.

History[change | change source]

The oldest part of the city, the island of Manhattan, still has its original Lenape Native American name. Although Native people such as the Lenape and Canarsees had lived there for many thousands of years, New York City was first explored by Europeans in the 1500s. Florentine explorer Giovanni da Verrazzano found the entrance to New York Harbor in the year 1524 and English explorer Henry Hudson named the Hudson River in 1609.

New York City was settled by Europeans from The Netherlands in 1624. The Dutch called the whole area of New York "Nieuw Nederland" (New Netherland) and they named a fort and town on the south end of Manhattan Island Nieuw Amsterdam (New Amsterdam),[13] after the capital city of the Netherlands, which was to become present-day New York. The English took over the colony in 1664 during the second Anglo-Dutch War. They changed the name to New York, to honor the Duke of York, who later became King James II of England. The Dutch surrendered Nieuw Amsterdam without fighting. They were afraid of the English Royal Navy, so they traded the town to England for the colony of Surinam in South America, which they thought was worth more money.

By the time the English took New York, there were many other Dutch towns in what would become New York City, including Breukelen (Brooklyn), Vlissingen (Flushing), and Nieuw Haarlem (Harlem). There were already some English towns in the area also, such as Gravesend in Brooklyn and Newtown in Queens. Dutch, English and other people had been living together in New York for a long time.

New York quickly grew to become a large and important port city. Important battles of the American Revolution were fought in northern Manhattan and in Brooklyn in 1776. New York was the capital of the United States under the Articles of Confederation from 1785 to 1788. When the US Constitution was made, it stayed as the capital from 1789 until 1790.[14]

In 1898, the cities of New York and Brooklyn came together with the Bronx, Staten Island, and the towns in Queens County to make Greater New York. This is the total area of the City of New York today. Around this time, many new immigrants came into New York City. They came in at Ellis Island, an island in New York's harbor near the Statue of Liberty. Many of them then moved to the Lower East Side neighborhood in Manhattan, which had over a million people living in just a few square miles.

Geography[change | change source]

Grant's Tomb, Manhattan

Most of New York City is on three islands near the Atlantic Ocean, although one part is on the mainland of North America. The city includes all of Manhattan Island and Staten Island, and the western end of Long Island. There are also many smaller islands.

The city is divided into five major parts called boroughs. Each one is also a county. They are:

Boroughs Notes
Manhattan (New York County, on Manhattan Island)
Brooklyn (Kings County, on Long Island)
The Bronx (Bronx County, on the mainland)
Queens (Queens County, on Long Island)
Staten Island (Richmond County, on Staten Island)

Water divides several parts of the city. Part of the Hudson River forms the border between Manhattan and the Bronx on one side, and the State of New Jersey on the other side. The East River forms the border between Manhattan on one side, and Brooklyn and Queens on the other side. The Harlem River forms the border between Manhattan and the Bronx (except for a small part of Manhattan that is on the mainland). Part of Long Island Sound separates the Bronx and Queens. Newtown Creek is part of the border between Brooklyn and Queens. Some parts of the city are very separate from the others because of water, such as Rockaway in Queens and City Island in the Bronx. A small piece of land in Manhattan is international territory and belongs to the United Nations Headquarters.

The hallmark of New York city is its many skyscrapers, especially in Manhattan. In New York City there are about 5600 skyscrapers. 48 of them are over 200 metres tall, which is the highest number of skyscrapers in one area in the world.

Climate[change | change source]

New York's climate is between humid subtropical and humid continental. The hottest temperature every in New York City is 106 °F and the coldest temperature ever is -13 °F. In 2012, Hurricane Sandy hit New York City, causing part of Manhattan to lose power. New York City gets some snow in winter.

Climate data for Central Park, New York City
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °F (°C) 38.3
(3.5)
41.6
(5.33)
49.7
(9.83)
61.2
(16.22)
70.8
(21.56)
79.3
(26.28)
84.1
(28.94)
82.6
(28.11)
75.2
(24)
63.8
(17.67)
53.8
(12.11)
43.0
(6.11)
61.95
(16.639)
Average low °F (°C) 26.9
(-2.83)
28.9
(-1.72)
35.2
(1.78)
44.8
(7.11)
54.0
(12.22)
63.6
(17.56)
68.8
(20.44)
67.8
(19.89)
60.8
(16)
50.0
(10)
41.6
(5.33)
32.0
(0)
47.87
(8.815)
Precipitation inches (mm) 3.65
(92.7)
3.09
(78.5)
4.36
(110.7)
4.50
(114.3)
4.19
(106.4)
4.41
(112)
4.60
(116.8)
4.44
(112.8)
4.28
(108.7)
4.40
(111.8)
4.02
(102.1)
4.00
(101.6)
49.94
(1,268.5)
Source: [15]

People[change | change source]

New York City currently has over 8 million people. Over 18 million people live in the city and nearby areas. The majority of the people in New York City belong to ethnic groups that are minorities in the US. New York City has had large numbers of immigrants for centuries. In the early 19th Century, they came from Ireland and Germany. Later in the 19th century, they came from Italy, Russia and Eastern Europe. Today, many are from Puerto Rico, Haiti, the Dominican Republic and Colombia.

Government[change | change source]

Statue of Liberty
The United Nations Building in Manhattan

The mayor of New York is Bill de Blasio, a Democrat. The city also has a City Council that makes some local laws. Most laws in New York City are set by the state government in Albany.

Transportation[change | change source]

Subway transportation is provided by the New York City Subway system, one of the biggest in the world.[16] Pennsylvania Station, the busiest train station in the United States, is here.[17]

John F. Kennedy International Airport, which is in the Queens neighborhood of New York, is one of the busiest airports in the United States.

Famous sites[change | change source]

Site Borough
Statue of Liberty Example
Empire State Building Manhattan
Rockefeller Center Example
George Washington Bridge Example
United Nations Example
Central Park Example
St. Patrick's Cathedral Example
Grant's Tomb Example
Times Square Manhattan

References[change | change source]

Ref
  1. "Why is New York City known as "the Big Apple" and "Gotham?"". Dictionary.com, LLC. Retrieved May 28, 2013.
  2. "General Article: New York After WWII". Corporation for Public Broadcasting. http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/americanexperience/features/general-article/newyork-postwar/. Retrieved May 28, 2013.
  3. "About New York City". The City of New York. Retrieved May 28, 2013.
  4. Eugene J. Sherman"FORWARD New York – Capital of the Modern World". The Weissman Center for International Business Baruch College/CUNY 2011. Retrieved May 28, 2013.
  5. Fleisher, Michael and Lincoln, Janet E. The Great Superman Book (Grand Central Publishing, 1978), pp. 223–225.
  6. 6.0 6.1 "US Gazetteer files: 2000 and 1990". United States Census Bureau. 2005-05-03. http://www.census.gov/geo/www/gazetteer/gazette.html. Retrieved 2008-01-31.
  7. the Mayor, New York City Office of (January 8, 2010). "Biography". New York, City of. Retrieved 2010-01-08.
  8. "US Board on Geographic Names". United States Geological Survey. 2007-10-25. http://geonames.usgs.gov. Retrieved 2008-01-31.
  9. "ACS DEMOGRAPHIC AND HOUSING ESTIMATES Geographies New York-Newark-Bridgeport, NY-NJ-CT-PA Combined Statistical Area Table DP05 2011 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates". U.S. Census Bureau. http://factfinder2.census.gov/faces/nav/jsf/pages/searchresults.xhtml?refresh=t. Retrieved May 4, 2013.
  10. Roberts, Sam (March 14, 2013). "Fewer People Are Abandoning the Bronx, Census Data Show". New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2013/03/14/nyregion/more-people-moving-to-bronx-census-shows.html.
  11. Moore, Tina. "The Bronx is up — and the Battery's up! In fact, city population is booming to its highest number ever". New York Daily News. http://www.nydailynews.com/new-york/nyc-population-time-high-article-1.1288402. Retrieved 2013-03-14.
  12. "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. http://factfinder.census.gov. Retrieved 2008-01-31.
  13. Rubin, Susan Goldman (2004). L'Chaim!: To Jewish Life in America!. Harry N. Adams in association with The Jewish Museum. ISBN 0810950359.
  14. The Nine Capitals of the United States. United States Senate Historical Office. Accessed June 9, 2005. Based on Fortenbaugh, Robert, The Nine Capitals of the United States, York, PA: Maple Press, 1948.
  15. "NOWData". http://www.nws.noaa.gov/climate/xmacis.php?wfo=okx. Retrieved 14 July 2014.
  16. "2009 Subway Ridership at a Glance" New York City Transit
  17. Empire State Development. "About Moynihan Station." Accessed 2011-03-07.


Other websites[change | change source]

Website
Official New York City Government site
WorldFlicks in New York: photos and interesting places on Google Maps