James II of England

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James II & VII[1]
King of England, Scotland and Ireland
Portrait of King James II by Sir Godfrey Kneller
Portrait of King James II by Sir Godfrey Kneller
Reign 6 February 1685 – 11 December 1688
Coronation 23 April 1685 (England)
Predecessor Charles II
Successor
Jacobite:
William III and Mary II
James III and VIII
Spouse Anne Hyde
m. 1660; dec. 1671
Mary of Modena
m. 1673; wid. 1701
Issue
Mary II of England
Anne of Great Britain
James FitzJames, 1st Duke of Berwick
James, Prince of Wales
Louisa Maria Teresa Stuart
Titles and styles
His Majesty King James II
His Majesty The King
The Duke of York
Prince James
House House of Stuart
Father Charles I of England
Mother Henrietta Maria of France
Born 14 October 1633(1633-10-14)
St. James's Palace, London
Died 16 September 1701(1701-09-16) (aged 67)
Saint-Germain-en-Laye, France
Burial Saint-Germain-en-Laye
A painting of James II of England

James II of England/VII of Scotland (14 October 1633-16 September 1701) became King of Scots, King of England, and King of Ireland on 6 February 1685, and Duke of Normandy on 31 December 1660. He was the last Roman Catholic king of Scotland, England, or Ireland. Some of his citizens did not like his religious ideas, leading a group of them to disobey and fight against him. This was called the Glorious Revolution because no one was killed. He was not replaced by his Roman Catholic son, James Francis Edward, but by his Protestant daughter and son-in-law, Mary II and William III (William II of Scotland), who became rulers in 1689.

The belief that James, not William III or Mary II, was the one true ruler became known as Jacobitism (from Jacobus or Iacobus, Latin for James). James made one serious attempt to recover his throne when he landed in Ireland in 1689. After his defeat at the Battle of the Boyne in the summer of 1690, he returned to France, living the rest of his life under the protection of King Louis XIV. His son James Francis Edward Stuart (The Old Pretender) and his grandson Charles Edward Stuart (The Young Pretender and Bonnie Prince Charlie) attempted to restore the Jacobite line after James's death, but failed.

Issue[change | edit source]

The issue listed are the children of James II who survived into adulthood. Illegitimate are not listed.

Name Birth Death Notes
Mary II of England 30 April 1662 28 December 1694 Married William III of England (1650 - 1702) in 1677. No surviving issue.
Anne of Great Britain 6 February 1665 1 August 1714 Married George of Denmark (2 April 1653 – 28 October 1708) in 1683.
James Francis Edward Stuart 10 June 1688 1 January 1766 had issue[source?].

References[change | edit source]

  1. In Scotland, he was called James VII, as there were six previous kings of that nation named James.