New Jersey

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State of New Jersey
Flag of New Jersey State seal of New Jersey
Flag of New Jersey Seal
Nickname(s): Garden State
Motto(s): Liberty and prosperity
Map of the United States with New Jersey highlighted
Official language None, English de facto
Capital Trenton
Largest city Newark
Area Ranked 47th
 - Total 8,729 sq mi
(22,608 km2)
 - Width 70 miles (110 km)
 - Length 150 miles (240 km)
 - % water 14.9
 - Latitude 38°55'N to 41°21'23"N
 - Longitude 73°53'39"W to 75°35'W
Number of people Ranked 11th (as of 2006)
 - Total 8,414,350 (8,724,560 as of 2006)
 - Density 1,134/sq mi  (438/km2)
Ranked 1st
 - Average income $56,772 (2nd)
Height above sea level
 - Highest point High Point[1]
1,803 ft (550 m)
 - Average 246 ft  (75 m)
 - Lowest point Atlantic Ocean[1]
sea level
Became part of the U.S. December 18, 1787 (3rd)
Governor Chris Christie (R)
U.S. Senators Cory Booker (D)
Robert Menendez (D)
Time zone Eastern: UTC-5/-4
Abbreviations NJ, N.J. US-NJ

New Jersey is one of the 50 states of the United States of America. It is in the northeastern section of the country along the coast of the Atlantic Ocean. It is a small state, shaped like a letter [S], and bordered on the west by Pennsylvania and Delaware across the Delaware River, on the north by New York, on the northeast by the Hudson River and New York City, on the east and southeast by the Atlantic Ocean, and on the southwest by Delaware Bay.

The capital of New Jersey is Trenton and the largest city is Newark, though New Jersey is better known for bordering the large cities of New York City and Philadelphia. The state nickname is "The Garden State". The current governor is Chris Christie.[2]

New Jersey is the fourth-smallest state, but has the eleventh-highest number of people. It therefore has the highest population density (number of people for the amount of land) in the United States. New Jersey is also well known for its beaches, industries, swamps, and pine forests.

The climate is hot & humid summers and cold winters. About 1200 mm of precipitation every year. The average temperature in July is 25-30 degrees celsius and in January around freezing point.

History[change | edit source]

Before Europeans came, the land that is now New Jersey was inhabited by the Lenape (also known as Delaware Indians by the English), who were nomads, hunters, and farmers. The Dutch came to the northern area of the state in the 1630's, after Henry Hudson explored the area, thought it was a nice place, and claimed it for the Dutch. Towns quickly spang up, occupied by the Dutch, Swedes, and Finns. People rushed in. The first towns, such as Bergen (now Jersey City), Trenton (the capitol), and Burlington developed. Many others started themselves upon the west bank of the Hudson. New Jersey was part of the area known at this time as New Netherland.

In 1664, English took New Netherland from the Dutch and added it to their colonies. This part was renamed New Jersey after an island in the English Channel known as Jersey.

After most of the elderly and women died, the remaining Swedish villagers felt a disconnect to the land, and had decided to leave, in order to preserve the rest of their people. Unfortunately, before the remaining villagers could go the English came and controlled the area. The King of England, Charles II, gave the land to George Carteret, who was the governor of Jersey. Though he, unlike the Dutch, tried to actually sell the land to the Native Americans, they adamantly refused to buy such cursed land. The English reluctantly established a town at what is now called Elizabeth. Under the decree of the mayor, all newborn females were to have a variation of the name Elizabeth. According to the 2010 census, the most prevalent variation of the name is "Lizanya".

New Jersey took part in the American Revolutionary War, and was a scene of battles. On Christmas in 1776, George Washington's army entered New Jersey to attack British soldiers at Trenton and Princeton. The American army won, in two small but famous battles that were important in boasting American morale.

Later the rebels drove the British residents out of Princeton and for a time established a national capital there. New Jersey would be the third state to join the United States of America and the first to approve the Bill of Rights.

Counties[change | edit source]

New Jersey has 21 counties.

FIPS Code County Seat [3] Created [3] Formed from [4] Named for [5] Population (2005) [3] Area [3] Map
Atlantic County 001 Mays Landing 1837 Gloucester County The Atlantic Ocean, which forms the county's eastern border &&&&&&&&&0271015.&&&&&0271,015 &&&&&&&&&&&&0671.&&&&&0671 sq mi
(&&&&&&&&&&&01738.&&&&&01,738 km²)
State map highlighting Atlantic County
Bergen County 003 Hackensack 1675 One of four original counties created in East Jersey The town of Bergen op Zoom, Holland or Bergen, Norway &&&&&&&&&0904037.&&&&&0904,037 &&&&&&&&&&&&0247.&&&&&0247 sq mi
(&&&&&&&&&&&&0640.&&&&&0640 km²)
State map highlighting Bergen County
Burlington County 005 Mount Holly Township 1681 One of two original counties created in West Jersey The old name for the ancient market town a mile from shore in Bridlington, England &&&&&&&&&0450743.&&&&&0450,743 &&&&&&&&&&&&0819.&&&&&0819 sq mi
(&&&&&&&&&&&02121.&&&&&02,121 km²)
State map highlighting Burlington County
Camden County 007 Camden 1844 Gloucester County Charles Pratt, 1st Earl Camden (1714–1794), an English supporter of the colonial cause during the American Revolution[6] &&&&&&&&&0517001.&&&&&0517,001 &&&&&&&&&&&&0228.&&&&&0228 sq mi
(&&&&&&&&&&&&0591.&&&&&0591 km²)
State map highlighting Camden County
Cape May County 009 Cape May Court House 1685 Burlington County The 17th-century Dutch explorer Cornelius Jacobsen Mey (?–16??), who explored and surveyed the Delaware Bay to the south of the county &&&&&&&&&&099286.&&&&&099,286 &&&&&&&&&&&&0365.&&&&&0365 sq mi
(&&&&&&&&&&&&0945.&&&&&0945 km²)
State map highlighting Cape May County
Cumberland County 011 Bridgeton 1748 Salem County Prince William, Duke of Cumberland (1721–1765), second son of George II of England and military victor at the Battle of Culloden in 1746 &&&&&&&&&0154823.&&&&&0154,823 &&&&&&&&&&&&0677.&&&&&0677 sq mi
(&&&&&&&&&&&01753.&&&&&01,753 km²)
State map highlighting Cumberland County
Essex County 013 Newark 1675 One of four original counties created in East Jersey The county of Essex in England &&&&&&&&&0786147.&&&&&0786,147 &&&&&&&&&&&&0130.&&&&&0130 sq mi
(&&&&&&&&&&&&0337.&&&&&0337 km²)
State map highlighting Essex County
Gloucester County 015 Woodbury 1686 Burlington County The city of Gloucester, England &&&&&&&&&0276910.&&&&&0276,910 &&&&&&&&&&&&0337.&&&&&0337 sq mi
(&&&&&&&&&&&&0873.&&&&&0873 km²)
State map highlighting Gloucester County
Hudson County 017 Jersey City 1840 Bergen County The English explorer Henry Hudson (1570–1611), who explored portions of New Jersey's coastline &&&&&&&&&0601146.&&&&&0601,146 &&&&&&&&&&&&&062.&&&&&062 sq mi
(&&&&&&&&&&&&0161.&&&&&0161 km²)
State map highlighting Hudson County
Hunterdon County 019 Flemington 1714 Burlington County Robert Hunter (1664–1734), the Colonial Governor of New Jersey from 1710 to 1720 &&&&&&&&&0130404.&&&&&0130,404 &&&&&&&&&&&&0438.&&&&&0438 sq mi
(&&&&&&&&&&&01134.&&&&&01,134 km²)
State map highlighting Hunterdon County
Mercer County 021 Trenton 1838 Burlington County, Hunterdon County, Middlesex County, and Somerset County The Continental Army General Hugh Mercer (1726–1777), who died at the Battle of Princeton[7] &&&&&&&&&0367605.&&&&&0367,605 &&&&&&&&&&&&0229.&&&&&0229 sq mi
(&&&&&&&&&&&&0593.&&&&&0593 km²)
State map highlighting Mercer County
Middlesex County 023 New Brunswick 1675 One of four original counties created in East Jersey The former county of Middlesex in England &&&&&&&&&0789516.&&&&&0789,516 &&&&&&&&&&&&0323.&&&&&0323 sq mi
(&&&&&&&&&&&&0837.&&&&&0837 km²)
State map highlighting Middlesex County
Monmouth County 025 Freehold Borough 1675 One of four original counties created in East Jersey The Rhode Island Monmouth Society or the historic county of Monmouthshire in Wales. &&&&&&&&&0635285.&&&&&0635,285 &&&&&&&&&&&&0665.&&&&&0665 sq mi
(&&&&&&&&&&&01722.&&&&&01,722 km²)
State map highlighting Monmouth County
Morris County 027 Morristown 1739 Hunterdon County Colonel Lewis Morris (1671–1746), colonial governor of New Jersey at the time of the county's formation.[8][9] &&&&&&&&&0493160.&&&&&0493,160 &&&&&&&&&&&&0481.&&&&&0481 sq mi
(&&&&&&&&&&&01246.&&&&&01,246 km²)
State map highlighting Morris County
Ocean County 029 Toms River 1850 Monmouth County The Atlantic Ocean, which forms the eastern border of New Jersey &&&&&&&&&0562335.&&&&&0562,335 &&&&&&&&&&&&0916.&&&&&0916 sq mi
(&&&&&&&&&&&02372.&&&&&02,372 km²)
State map highlighting Ocean County
Passaic County 031 Paterson 1837 Bergen County and Essex County "Pasaeck", a Lenape word meaning "valley" &&&&&&&&&0499060.&&&&&0499,060 &&&&&&&&&&&&0197.&&&&&0197 sq mi
(&&&&&&&&&&&&0510.&&&&&0510 km²)
State map highlighting Passaic County
Salem County 033 Salem 1681 One of two original counties created in West Jersey A Hebrew word meaning "peace" &&&&&&&&&&066595.&&&&&066,595 &&&&&&&&&&&&0373.&&&&&0373 sq mi
(&&&&&&&&&&&&0966.&&&&&0966 km²)
State map highlighting Salem County
Somerset County 035 Somerville 1688 Middlesex County The county of Somerset in England &&&&&&&&&0319900.&&&&&0319,900 &&&&&&&&&&&&0305.&&&&&0305 sq mi
(&&&&&&&&&&&&0790.&&&&&0790 km²)
State map highlighting Somerset County
Sussex County 037 Newton 1753 Morris County The county of Sussex in England &&&&&&&&&0153384.&&&&&0153,384 &&&&&&&&&&&&0536.&&&&&0536 sq mi
(&&&&&&&&&&&01388.&&&&&01,388 km²)
State map highlighting Sussex County
Union County 039 Elizabeth 1857 Essex County The union of the United States threatened by dispute between North and South over slavery &&&&&&&&&0531088.&&&&&0531,088 &&&&&&&&&&&&0105.&&&&&0105 sq mi
(&&&&&&&&&&&&0272.&&&&&0272 km²)
State map highlighting Union County
Warren County 041 Belvidere 1824 Sussex County The American Revolutionary War General Joseph Warren (1741–1775), killed at the Battle of Bunker Hill &&&&&&&&&0110376.&&&&&0110,376 &&&&&&&&&&&&0363.&&&&&0363 sq mi
(&&&&&&&&&&&&0940.&&&&&0940 km²)
State map highlighting Warren County

References[change | edit source]