||The English used in this article may not be easy for everybody to understand. (March 2012)|
Machinima (// or //) is a type of animation and digital moviemaking style. It is the use of 3D computer graphics with a 3D video game or computer game to create the 3D animation. The creator who is making the video will record in-game animation and edit it with voice recordings. Machinima can be script-driven, meaning the cameras, characters, and effects are scripted for playback in real time. Unlike other types of animation, the scripting is driven by events and not keyframes.
Machinima limits the controls of other animation types. This is according to Machinima.org. For example, Machinima videos can be shot live or scripted in real time. So it becomes much faster to produce than traditionally animated movies.
Machinima productions can remain close to their gaming roots and feature stunts or other portrayals of gameplay. Popular genres include dance videos, comedy, and drama. Alternatively, some filmmakers attempt to stretch the boundaries of the rendering engines or to mask the original 3-D context. The Academy of Machinima Arts & Sciences (AMAS), a non-profit organization dedicated to promoting machinima, recognizes exemplary productions through Mackie awards given at its annual Machinima Film Festival. Some general film festivals accept machinima, and game companies, such as Epic Games, Blizzard Entertainment and Jagex, have sponsored contests involving it.\
The Making of Machinima [change]
The AMAS defines machinima as "animated filmmaking within a real-time virtual 3-D environment". In other 3-D animation methods, creators can control every frame and nuance of their characters but, in turn, must consider issues such as key frames and in-betweening. Machinima creators leave many rendering details to their host environments, but may thus inherit those environments' limitations. Because game animations focus on dramatic rather than casual actions, the range of character emotions is often limited. However, Kelland, Morris, and Lloyd state that a small range of emotions is often sufficient, as in successful Japanese anime television series.
Another difference is that machinima is created in real time, but other animation is pre-rendered. Real-time engines need to trade quality for speed and use simpler algorithms and models. In the 2001 animated film Final Fantasy: The Spirits Within, every strand of hair on a character's head was independent; real-time needs would likely force them to be treated as a single unit. Kelland, Morris, and Lloyd argue that improvement in consumer-grade graphics technology will allow more realism; For cut scenes in video games, issues other than visual fidelity arise. Pre-rendered scenes can require more digital storage space, weaken suspension of disbelief through contrast with real-time animation of normal gameplay, and limit interaction.
Like live action, machinima is recorded in real-time, and real people can act and control the camera. Filmmakers are often encouraged to follow traditional cinematic conventions, such as avoiding wide fields of view, the overuse of slow motion, and errors in visual continuity. Unlike live action, machinima involves less expensive, digital special effects and sets, possibly with a science-fiction or historical theme. Explosions and stunts can be tried and repeated without monetary cost and risk of injury, and the host environment may allow unrealistic physical constraints. University of Cambridge experiments in 2002 and 2003 attempted to use machinima to re-create a scene from the 1942 live-action film Casablanca. Machinima filming differed from traditional cinematography in that character expression was limited, but camera movements were more flexible and improvised. Nitsche compared this experiment to an unpredictable Dogme 95 production.
Berkeley sees machinima as "a strangely hybrid form, looking forwards and backwards, cutting edge and conservative at the same time". Machinima is a digital medium based on 3-D computer games, but most works have a linear narrative structure. Some, such as Red vs. Blue and The Strangerhood, follow narrative conventions of television situational comedy. Nitsche agrees that pre-recorded ("reel") machinima tends to be linear and offers limited interactive storytelling; he sees more opportunities in machinima performed live and with audience interaction. In creating their improvisational comedy series On the Campaign Trail with Larry & Lenny Lumberjack and talk show Tra5hTa1k with ILL Will, the ILL Clan blended real and virtual performance by creating the works on-stage and interacting with a live audience. In another combination of real and virtual worlds, Chris Burke's talk show This Spartan Life takes place in Halo 2's open multiplayer environment. There, others playing in earnest may attack the host or his interviewee. Although other virtual theatrical performances have taken place in chat rooms and multi-user dungeons, machinima adds "cinematic camera work". Previously, such virtual cinematic performances with live audience interaction were confined to research labs equipped with powerful computers.
Machinima can be less expensive than other forms of filmmaking. Strange Company produced its feature-length machinima film BloodSpell for less than £10,000. Before using machinima, Burnie Burns and Matt Hullum of Rooster Teeth Productions spent US$9,000 to produce a live-action independent film; in contrast, the four Xbox game consoles used to make Red vs. Blue in 2005 cost $600. The low cost caused a product manager for Electronic Arts to compare machinima to the low-budget independent film The Blair Witch Project, without the need for cameras and actors. Because these are seen as low barriers to entry, machinima has been called a "democratization of filmmaking". Berkeley weighs increased participation and a blurred line between producer and consumer against concerns that game copyrights limit commercialization and growth of machinima.
Comparatively, machinimists using pre-made virtual platforms like Second Life have indicated that their productions can be made quite successfully with no cost at all. Creators like Dutch director Chantal Harvey, producer of the 48 Hour Film Project Machinima sector, have created upwards of 200 films using the platform. Harvey's advocacy of the genre has resulted in the involvement of film director Peter Greenaway who served as a juror for the Machinima category and gave a keynote speech during the event.
Character and camera control [change]
Kelland, Morris, and Lloyd list four main methods of creating machinima. From simple to advanced, these are: relying on the game's AI to control most actions, digital puppetry, recamming, and precise scripting of actions. Although simple to produce, AI-dependent results are unpredictable, thus complicating the realization of a preconceived film script. For example, when Rooster Teeth produced The Strangerhood using The Sims 2, a game that encourages the use of its AI, the group had to create multiple instances of each character to accommodate different moods. Individual instances were selected at different times to produce appropriate actions.
In digital puppetry, machinima creators become virtual actors; each crew member controls a character in real-time, as in a multiplayer game. The director can use built-in camera controls, if available. Otherwise, video is captured from the perspectives of one or more puppeteers who serve as camera operators. Puppetry allows for improvisation and offers controls familiar to gamers, but requires more personnel than the other methods and is less precise than scripted recordings. However, some games, such as the Halo series, (except for Halo PC and Custom Edition, which allow AI and custom objects and characters), allow filming only through puppetry. According to Marino, other disadvantages are the possibility of disruption when filming in an open multi-user environment and the temptation for puppeteers to play the game in earnest, littering the set with blood and dead bodies. However, Chris Burke intentionally hosts This Spartan Life in these unpredictable conditions, which are fundamental to the show. Other works filmed using puppetry are the ILL Clan's improvisational comedy series On the Campaign Trail with Larry & Lenny Lumberjack and Rooster Teeth Productions' Red vs. Blue. In recamming, which builds on puppetry, actions are first recorded to a game engine's demo file format, not directly as video frames. Without re-enacting scenes, artists can then manipulate the demo files to add cameras, tweak timing and lighting, and change the surroundings. This technique is limited to the few engines and software tools that support it.
A technique common in cut scenes of video games, scripting consists of giving precise directions to the game engine. A filmmaker can work alone this way, as J. Thaddeus "Mindcrime" Skubis did in creating the nearly four-hour The Seal of Nehahra (2000), the longest work of machinima at the time. However, perfecting scripts can be time-consuming. Unless what-you-see-is-what-you-get (WYSIWYG) editing is available, as in Vampire: The Masquerade – Redemption, changes may need to be verified in additional runs, and non-linear editing may be difficult. In this respect, Kelland, Morris, and Lloyd compare scripting to stop-motion animation. Another disadvantage is that, depending on the game, scripting capabilities may be limited or unavailable. Matinee, a machinima software tool included with Unreal Tournament 2004, popularized scripting in machinima.
Limitations and solutions [change]
When Diary of a Camper was created, no software tools existed to edit demo files into films. Rangers clan member Eric "ArchV" Fowler wrote his own programs to reposition the camera and to splice footage from the Quake demo file. Quake movie editing software later appeared, but the use of conventional non-linear video editing software is now common. For example, Phil South inserted single, completely white frames into his work No Licence to enhance the visual impact of explosions. In the post-production of Red vs. Blue: The Blood Gulch Chronicles, Rooster Teeth Productions added letterboxing with Adobe Premiere Pro to hide the camera player's head-up display.
Machinima creators have used different methods to handle limited character expression. In the Halo video game series, helmets completely cover the characters' faces. To prevent confusion, Rooster Teeth's characters move slightly when speaking, a convention shared with anime. Some machinima creators use custom software. For example, Strange Company uses Take Over GL Face Skins to add more facial expressions to their characters filmed in BioWare's 2002 role-playing video game Neverwinter Nights. Similarly, Atussa Simon used a "library of faces" for characters in The Battle of Xerxes. In some cases, some game companies may provide such software; examples include Epic Games' Impersonator for Unreal Tournament 2004 and Valve Corporation's FacePoser for Half-Life 2. Another solution is to blend in non-machinima elements, as nGame did by inserting painted characters with more expressive faces into its 1999 film Berlin Assassins. It may be possible to point the camera elsewhere or employ other creative cinematography or acting. For example, Tristan Pope combined creative character and camera positioning with video editing to suggest sexual actions in his controversial film Not Just Another Love Story.
- Segall, Miriam (2008). Career Building Through Digital Moviemaking. Rosen Publishing. p. 22. ISBN 1404219455.
- Segall, Miriam (2008). Career Building Through Digital Moviemaking. Rosen Publishing. p. 23. ISBN 1404219455.
- Marino 2004a, 1
- Kelland, Morris & Lloyd 2005, 19–20
- Kelland, Morris & Lloyd 2005, 78–79
- Kelland, Morris & Lloyd 2005, 24
- Kelland, Morris & Lloyd 2005, 27
- Kelland, Morris & Lloyd 2005, 22
- McMahan 2005, 36–37; Marino 2004a, 347–348, 362; Kelland, Morris & Lloyd 2005, 142–143
- McMahan 2005, 37
- Kelland, Morris & Lloyd 2005, 142
- Nitsche 2009, 114–115
- Berkeley 2006, 67
- Nitsche 2005, 223–224
- Nitsche 2007
- Nitsche 2005, 214
- Nitsche 2005, 224-225
- Price 2007
- Thompson 2005, 2
- Thompson 2005, 2; Matlack & Grover 2005
- Berkeley 2006, 68–70
- Kelland, Morris & Lloyd 2005, 80
- Kelland, Morris & Lloyd 2005, 82
- Kelland, Morris & Lloyd 2005, 87
- Kelland, Morris & Lloyd 2005, 87; Marino 2004a, 349
- Nitsche 2009, 113
- Marino 2004a, 351
- Nitsche 2009, 114
- Kelland, Morris & Lloyd 2005, 90
- Kelland, Morris & Lloyd 2005, 90–91
- Kelland, Morris & Lloyd 2005, 91
- Kelland, Morris & Lloyd 2005, 94
- Law 2000; Skubis 2000
- Kelland, Morris & Lloyd 2005, 94; Hancock 2000, 1
- Kelland, Morris & Lloyd 2005, 129
- Lowood 2006, 33
- Lowood 2006, 33; Wu n.d.
- Kelland, Morris & Lloyd 2005, 114
- Moltenbrey 2005
- Kelland, Morris & Lloyd 2005, 131
- Kelland, Morris & Lloyd 2005, 78
- Kelland, Morris & Lloyd 2005, 79
- Kelland, Morris & Lloyd 2005, 130
- Lowood 2007, 188
Further reading [change]
- Academy of Machinima Arts & Sciences (May 15, 2007). "Who We Are". Academy of Machinima Arts & Sciences. http://www.machinima.org/who-we-are.html. Retrieved 2009-02-27.
- Association of Machinima Arts & Sciences. "Machinimasia Festival in Singapore". Association of Machinima Arts & Sciences. http://machinima.org.sg/machinimafestivalinsg.php. Retrieved 2009-03-11.
- Andrews, Marke (September 27, 2007). "My Second Life brings virtual world alive on TV". The Vancouver Sun (CanWest). ISSN 0832-1299. http://www2.canada.com/vancouversun/news/business/story.html?id=a874afa9-027d-4fa9-8cbd-8e5113fbec96. Retrieved 2009-02-24.
- Berkeley, Leo (2006). "Situating Machinima in the New Mediascape". The Australian Journal of Emerging Technologies and Society 4 (2): 65–80. ISSN 1449-0706. http://www.swinburne.edu.au/hosting/ijets/journal/V4N2/V4N2abstract_berkeley.htm. Retrieved 2009-03-03.
- Bitfilm Festival (July 2008). "The Bitfilm Competitions" (PDF). Bitfilm Festival. http://www.bitfilm.com/network/upload/background_pdfs/d378a870431f5ac7524e65e0d7e261eb.pdf. Retrieved 2009-02-27.
- Diderich, Joelle (16 December 2005). "French film about riots draws applause". USA Today. Associated Press. ISSN 0734-7456. http://www.usatoday.com/tech/gaming/2005-12-15-french-riots-film_x.htm. Retrieved 2009-02-16.
- Ebert, Roger (June 2000). "The Ghost in the Machinima". Yahoo! Internet Life. Ziff Davis. Archived from the original on August 18, 2000. http://web.archive.org/web/20000818183940/http://www.zdnet.com/yil/stories/features/0,9539,2572985,00.html. Retrieved 2009-03-27.
- Forbes (December 10, 2006). "Red Vs. Blue: The Cash Is Always Greener". Forbes.com. Forbes. http://www.forbes.com/2006/12/10/red-vs-blue-tech-cx_de_games06_1212cash.html. Retrieved 2007-09-24.
- Gish, Harrison (2008). "Trauma Engines: Representing School Shootings Through Halo". Mediascape (Spring 2008). ISSN 1558-478X. http://www.tft.ucla.edu/mediascape/Spring08_TraumaEngines.html. Retrieved 2009-04-14.
- Green, Dave (July 1995). "Demo or Die!". Wired 3 (7). ISSN 1059-1028. http://www.wired.com/wired/archive/3.07/democoders.html. Retrieved 2007-08-12.
- Hancock, Hugh (September 30, 2000). "Machinima Cutscene Creation, Part One". Gamasutra. CMP Media. http://www.gamasutra.com/features/20000930/hancock_02.htm. Retrieved 2009-04-20.
- Hanson, Matt (2004). The End of Celluloid: Film Futures in the Digital Age. Hove, England: RotoVision. pp. 60–67. ISBN 2880467837.
- Harwood, Tracy (October 15, 2007). "Hot Picks: Machinima". BBC News (BBC). http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/technology/7042281.stm. Retrieved 2009-02-27.
- Hayes, Christina (2008). "Changing the Rules of the Game: How Video Game Publishers are Embracing User-Generated Derivative Works" (PDF). Harvard Journal of Law & Technology 21 (2): 567–587. ISSN 0897-3393. http://jolt.law.harvard.edu/articles/pdf/v21/21HarvJLTech567.pdf. Retrieved 2009-04-20.
- Heaslip, Stephen (May 9, 1998). "Blue's News - May 9–15, 1998". Blue's News. http://www.bluesnews.com/archives/may98-2.html. Retrieved 2009-03-18.
- Horwatt, Elijah (2008). "New Media Resistance: Machinima and the Avant-Garde". CineAction (73–74): 8–15. ISSN 0826-9866. http://cineaction.ca/issue73sample.htm. Retrieved 2009-04-13.
- James, Geoffrey (November 2007). "Machinima, Microsoft, and Money". Games for Windows: The Official Magazine (12): 28–30. ISSN 1933-6160.
- Kelland, 3=Dave; Morris; Lloyd (2005). Machinima: Making Movies in 3D Virtual Environments. Cambridge: The Ilex Press. ISBN 1-59200-650-7.
- Konow, David (September 24, 2005). "The Cult of Red vs. Blue". TwitchGuru. Tom's Guide Publishing. Archived from the original on March 8, 2008. http://web.archive.org/web/20080308135119/http://www.twitchguru.com/2005/09/24/the_cult_of_red_vs/. Retrieved 2009-03-04.
- Lankshear, Colin; Knobel, Michele (2007). "Researching New Literacies: Web 2.0 Practices and Insider Perspectives". E-Learning 4 (3): 224–240. doi:10.2304/elea.2007.4.3.224. http://www.wwwords.co.uk/rss/abstract.asp?j=elea&aid=3116&doi=1. Retrieved 2009-05-14.
- Law, Caryn (September 2000). "The Nehahra Project". GameSpy Spotlights. GameSpy. http://archive.gamespy.com/spotlights/september00/nehahra/. Retrieved 2009-05-04.
- Lowood, Henry (2005). "Real-Time Performance: Machinima and Game Studies" (PDF). The International Digital Media & Arts Association Journal 2 (1): 10–17. ISSN 1554-0405. http://www.idmaa.org/journal/pdf/iDMAa_Journal_Vol_2_No_1_screen.pdf. Retrieved 2006-08-07.
- Lowood, Henry (2006). "High-performance play: The making of machinima". Journal of Media Practice 7 (1): 25–42. doi:10.1386/jmpr.7.1.25/1.
- Lowood, Henry (2007). "Found Technology: Players as Innovators in the Making of Machinima". In McPherson, Tara (PDF). Digital Youth, Innovation, and the Unexpected. The John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation Series on Digital Media and Learning. Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press. pp. 165–196. ISBN 9780262633598. http://www.mitpressjournals.org/doi/pdf/10.1162/dmal.9780262633598.165. Retrieved 2009-01-27.
- Lowood, Henry (2008). "Game Capture: The Machinima Archive and the History of Digital Games". Mediascape (Spring 2008). ISSN 1558-478X. http://www.tft.ucla.edu/mediascape/Spring08_GameCapture.html. Retrieved 2009-04-12.
- Machinima.com staff (January 20, 2001). "Showcase: Blahbalicious". Machinima.com. Machinima, Inc. http://www.machinima.com/article/view&id=94. Retrieved 2007-08-13.
- Machinima.com staff (November 15, 2006). "Make Love, Not Warcraft: Q&A with Frank Agnone, J.J. Franzen, and Eric Stough". machinima.com. Machinima, Inc. http://www.machinima.com/article/view&id=459. Retrieved 2007-09-25.
- Maragos, Nick (December 15, 2005). "Blizzard, Xfire Announce Machinima Contest". Gamasutra. United Business Media. http://www.gamasutra.com/php-bin/news_index.php?story=7537. Retrieved 2009-03-18.
- Marcus, Todd Davis (2008). "Fostering Creativity in Virtual Worlds: Easing the Restrictiveness of Copyright for User-Created Content" (PDF). New York Law School Law Review 52: 67–92. ISSN 0145-448X. http://old.nyls.edu/pdfs/NLRvol52-102.pdf. Retrieved 2009-05-03.
- Marino, Paul. "The Machinima Film Festival 2002". Machinima.com. Machinima, Inc. http://www.machinima.com/article/view&id=28. Retrieved 2009-02-27.
- Marino, Paul (2004a). 3D Game-Based Filmmaking: The Art of Machinima. Scottsdale, Arizona: Paraglyph Press. ISBN 1-932111-85-9.
- Marino, Paul (October 6, 2004b). "The Wonderful World of Machinima". The Screen Savers. G4. http://g4tv.com/screensavers/features/49874/The-Wonderful-World-of-Machinima.html. Retrieved 2009-03-26.
- Matlack, Carol; Grover, Ron (December 19, 2005). "France: Thousands of Young Spielbergs". BusinessWeek. McGraw–Hill. http://www.businessweek.com/magazine/content/05_51/b3964049.htm. Retrieved 2009-02-19.
- McGraw–Hill (August 20, 2007). "The Future of Machinima". BusinessWeek. McGraw–Hill. http://www.businessweek.com/innovate/content/aug2007/id20070820_438960.htm. Retrieved 2009-03-01.
- McMahan, Alison (2005). The films of Tim Burton: animating live action in contemporary Hollywood. Continuum International Publishing Group. ISBN 9780826415660. http://books.google.com/?id=2J5-MMVW1pYC. Retrieved 2009-04-30.
- Moltenbrey, Karen (November 2005). "Out of Character". Computer Graphics World 28 (11): 24–28. ISSN 0271-4159. http://www.cgw.com/Publications/CGW/2005/Volume-28-Issue-11-November-2005-/Out-of-Character.aspx. Retrieved 2009-03-01.
- Moss, Ben (March 28, 2001). "Showcase: Operation Bayshield". Machinima.com. Machinima, Inc. http://www.machinima.com/article/view&id=63. Retrieved 2009-03-23.
- Musgrove, Mike (December 1, 2005). "Game Turns Players Into Indie Moviemakers". The Washington Post: D01. ISSN 0190-8286. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2005/11/30/AR2005113002117.html.
- Nitsche, Michael (2005). "Film Live: An Excursion into Machinima". In Brunhild Brushoff. Developing Interactive Narrative Content. Munich: High Text Verlag. pp. 210–233. ISBN 393326992X.
- Nitsche, Michael (2007). "Claiming Its Space: Machinima". Dichtung-Digital Contributions on Digital Aesthetics (37). ISSN 1617-6901. http://www.brown.edu/Research/dichtung-digital/2007/Nitsche/nitsche.htm. Retrieved 2009-03-03.
- Nitsche, Michael (2009). Video Game Spaces: Image, Play, and Structure in 3D Worlds. Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press. ISBN 9780262141017. http://books.google.com/?id=2Adk9hp8nh8C. Retrieved 2009-02-01.
- Osborne, Toby (December 1, 2004). "Ottawa International Animation Festival (9/22-26/04)". Take #1 (Canadian Independent Film & Television Publishing Association) 13 (48): 42. ISSN 1192-5507. http://www.accessmylibrary.com/coms2/summary_0286-18386268_ITM. Retrieved 2009-02-27.
- PC Zone staff (April 2004). "Reinventing the Reel". PC Zone (140): 12–13. ISSN 0967-8220.
- Price, Peter (October 16, 2007). "Machinima waits to go mainstream". BBC News (BBC). http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/technology/7045018.stm. Retrieved 2009-02-17.
- Robertson, Barbara (April 2003). "Films of the Future". Computer Graphics World 26 (4): 10–11. ISSN 0271-4159. http://www.cgw.com/Publications/CGW/2003/Volume-26-Issue-4-April-2003-/Films-of-the-Future.aspx. Retrieved 2009-05-22.[dead link]
- Skubis, J. Thaddeus (October 20, 2000). "Directors Notes: The Seal of Nehahra". Machinima.com. Machinima, Inc. http://www.machinima.com/article/view&id=160. Retrieved 2009-05-11.
- Sunder, Madhavi (November 2006). "IP3". Stanford Law Review 59 (2): 257–332. ISSN 0038-9765.
- Thompson, Clive (August 7, 2005). "The Xbox Auteurs". The New York Times. ISSN 0362–4331. http://www.nytimes.com/2005/08/07/magazine/07MACHINI.html?ex=1281067200&en=a0b469a4346f3cbb&ei=5090&partner=rssuserland&emc=rss. Retrieved 2009-02-17.
- Tuttle, Will (July 12, 2007). "E3 2007: Halo 3 Saved Films Preview (Xbox 360)". Team Xbox. IGN Entertainment. http://previews.teamxbox.com/xbox-360/1676/Halo-3/p1/. Retrieved 2007-09-25.
- Varney, Allen (March 13, 2007). "The French Democracy: A machinima smash raises questions about art - and copyright". The Escapist. Themis Group. http://www.escapistmagazine.com/articles/view/issues/issue_88/496-The-French-Democracy. Retrieved 2009-03-18.
- Wallenstein, Andrew (December 18, 2008). "TV vets, Machinima laugh it up". The Hollywood Reporter 407 (49): 7. ISSN 0018-3660. http://www.hollywoodreporter.com/news/tv-vets-machinima-laugh-up-124648. Retrieved 2012-02-01.
- Wilonsky, Robert (August 15, 2002). "Joystick Cinema". Houston Press. Village Voice Media. OCLC 29800759. http://www.houstonpress.com/2002-08-15/culture/joystick-cinema/. Retrieved 2009-03-25.
- Wu, Andrew. "Who's Who in Quake". Planet Quake. GameSpy. http://qe.planetquake.gamespy.com/who/whoall.htm. Retrieved 2008-08-23.
- Greenaway, Peter. "Peter Greenaway & Expert Panel Select 48 Hour Machinima Contest Winners". Hamlet Au. New World Notes. http://nwn.blogs.com/nwn/2010/09/peter-greenaway-machinima-contest.html. Retrieved 2010-09-30.
- Mazalek, Ali; Nitsche, Michael (June 13, 2007). "tangible interfaces for real-time 3D virtual environments". Proceedings of the international conference on Advances in computer entertainment technology. ACM International Conference Proceeding Series. 203. New York City: Association for Computing Machinery. 155–162. doi:10.1145/1255047.1255080. ISBN 9781595936400.
- Picard, Martin (2007). "Machinima: Video Game As An Art Form?". Loading... (Canadian Game Studies Association) 1 (1). http://journals.sfu.ca/loading/index.php/loading/article/viewArticle/17. Retrieved 2009-05-08.
- Reid, Christopher (2009). "Fair Game: The Application of Fair Use Doctrine to Machinima". Fordham Intellectual Property, Media & Entertainment Law Journal 19 (3): 831–876. ISSN 1079-9699. http://law.fordham.edu/publications/article.ihtml?pubID=200&id=3026. Retrieved 2009-05-10.
- Salen, Katie; Zimmerman, Eric (2003). Rules of Play. Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press. ISBN 9780262240451. http://books.google.com/?id=UM-xyczrZuQC. Retrieved 2009-03-01.
Other websites [change]
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Machinima|
- Academic machinima bibliography to 2007
- Academic machinima bibliography to 2011
- Warcraft Movies, a resource for World of Warcraft machinima
- Machinima, a resource for all machinima works
- Blue Entertainment, a resource for battlefield 2 machinima
- T.O.M.B. The Online Motions Box, links to thousands of Machinima motions
- GamersTube, a resource for various machinima
- The Movie Vault, a competitive machinima video website
- Flight Sim Machinima, links to flight-sim machinima
- Machinination, a resource for machinima artists
- Wikia has a wiki on this subject: Machinima Wiki
- Wikia has a wiki on this subject: Halo Machinima Wiki
- Wikia has a wiki on this subject: Half-Life Machinima Wiki
- Machinima Central- Machinima Community/Resources