Mental illness

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
A picture by Armand Gautier, showing people with commonly diagnosed mental illnesses in the 19th century, in the gardens of the Pitié-Salpêtrière Hospital: dementia, megalomania, acute mania, melancholia, idiocy, hallucination, erotic mania and paralysis

A mental illness is an illness of the mind. People with a mental illness may behave in strange ways, or have strange thoughts, in their view or the view of others.

Mental illnesses develop during the life of a person. This may be linked to genes and experience. What is considered as a mental illness has changed over time. What is considered to be a mental illness may not be one in a different culture. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) by the American Psychiatric Association is used around the world.

People with a mental illness sometimes have problems dealing with other people, or leading what is called a normal life. Treatment and certain medications can help people with certain mental illnesses lead a better life.

In some cases, mental illnesses change the way the brain works. Many conditions which affect the brain are not mental illnesses, as they do not change the way in which people think: Neither epilepsy nor Parkinson's disease is a mental illness, yet both affect the brain.

Mental illnesses are common[change | change source]

According to the President's New Freedom Commission on Mental Health in the US, the most common type of disability in the United States is major mental illnesses (which include major depression, bipolar disorder, personality disorders, body dysmorphic disorder, schizophrenia, and obsessive-compulsive disorder).

Thirty-three percent of North American adults will have a mental illness in a given year, according to the National Alliance on Mental Illness. But in more than half of these cases, the mental illness is not bad enough to disrupt daily life activities.

Partly inherited[change | change source]

There is a genetic basis which makes some people more likely to develop mental illness. A study published in The Lancet, a medical journal, found the same set of genetic markers in people with five different disorders: schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, autism, major depression, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).[1]

Treatment of mental illnesses[change | change source]

Mental illnesses can be treated by:

And all human rights of persons with mental illness are protected by:

Many counties have laws that permit to treat people against their will. Such laws often prescribe treatment when mentally ill people committed certain crimes.

Violence[change | change source]

Even though the media show this differently, studies have shown that people with a severe mental illness are not necessarily violent. Statistically, violence is often caused by factors such as drug abuse, or those related to the personal, social and economic situation.[2]

Findings show that people with a mental illness that live in the community will be victims of violence more often that they will be those starting or spreading it.[3][4] A study that looked at people diagnosed with "severe mental illness" living in a US inner-city area found that a quarter of them had been victims of at least one violent crime over the course of a year; this proportion was eleven times higher than the average.[5] For people which have been diagnosed with a mental illness it is more difficult to get a trial started, because fewer people believe them, and many people have a prejudice against people with a mental illness.[6]

There are a few specific diagnoses which are defined by conduct problems and violence. These include conditions such as childhood conduct disorder, adult antisocial personality disorder or psychopathy. There are conflicing findings about how much specific symptoms are linked to an increase in violent behaviour. These symptoms include psychosis (hallucinations or delusions) that can occur in disorders such as schizophrenia, delusional disorder or mood disorder. The factors that lead to violent behaviour are more often demographic or ecomic in nature, such as being young, male, of lower socioeconomic status or of abusing drugs, including alcoholism, to which some people are particularly vulnerable.[7][3][8][9]

High-profile cases have led to fears that serious crimes, such as homicide, have increased because people with certain mental illnesses are not treated in specialized institutions, but the evidence does not support this conclusion.[9][10] Violence that does occur in relation to mental disorder (against the mentally ill or by the mentally ill) typically occurs in the context of complex social interactions, often in a family setting rather than between strangers.[11] It is also an issue in health care settings[12] and the wider community.[13]

Related pages[change | change source]

References[change | change source]

  1. Kolata, Gene 2013. Same genetic basis found in 5 types of mental disorders. The New York Times. [1]
  2. Elbogen, Eric B.; Johnson, SC (2009). "The Intricate Link Between Violence and Mental Disorder: Results from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions". Archives of General Psychiatry 66 (2): 152–61. doi:10.1001/archgenpsychiatry.2008.537. PMID 19188537.
  3. 3.0 3.1 Stuart H (June 2003). "Violence and mental illness: an overview". World Psychiatry 2 (2): 121–124. PMC 1525086. PMID 16946914.
  4. Brekke, John S.; Prindle, C; Bae, SW; Long, JD (2001). "Risks for Individuals with Schizophrenia Who Are Living in the Community". Psychiatric Services 52 (10): 1358–66. doi:10.1176/appi.ps.52.10.1358. PMID 11585953.
  5. Teplin, Linda A.; McClelland, GM; Abram, KM; Weiner, DA (2005). "Crime Victimization in Adults with Severe Mental Illness: Comparison with the National Crime Victimization Survey". Archives of General Psychiatry 62 (8): 911–21. doi:10.1001/archpsyc.62.8.911. PMC 1389236. PMID 16061769.
  6. Petersilia, J. R. (2001). "Crime Victims with Developmental Disabilities: A Review Essay". Criminal Justice and Behavior 28 (6): 655–94. doi:10.1177/009385480102800601.
  7. Pilgrim, David; Rogers, Anne (2005). A sociology of mental health and illness (3rd ed.). Milton Keynes: Open University Press. ISBN 0-335-21583-1.[page needed]
  8. Steadman, H. J.; Mulvey, EP; Monahan, J; Robbins, PC; Appelbaum, PS; Grisso, T; Roth, LH; Silver, E (1998). "Violence by People Discharged from Acute Psychiatric Inpatient Facilities and by Others in the Same Neighborhoods". Archives of General Psychiatry 55 (5): 393–401. doi:10.1001/archpsyc.55.5.393. PMID 9596041.
  9. 9.0 9.1 Fazel, Seena; Gulati, Gautam; Linsell, Louise; Geddes, John R.; Grann, Martin (2009). McGrath, John. ed. "Schizophrenia and Violence: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis". PLoS Medicine 6 (8): e1000120. doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.1000120. PMC 2718581. PMID 19668362.
  10. Taylor, P. J.; Gunn, J. (1999). "Homicides by people with mental illness: Myth and reality". The British Journal of Psychiatry 174: 9–14. doi:10.1192/bjp.174.1.9. PMID 10211145.
  11. Solomon, P. L.; Cavanaugh, MM; Gelles, RJ (2005). "Family Violence among Adults with Severe Mental Illness: A Neglected Area of Research". Trauma, Violence, & Abuse 6 (1): 40–54. doi:10.1177/1524838004272464. PMID 15574672.
  12. Chou, Kuei-Ru; Lu, Ru-Band; Chang, Min (2001). "Assaultive Behavior by Psychiatric In-Patients and Its Related Factors". Journal of Nursing Research 9 (5): 139–51. doi:10.1097/01.JNR.0000347572.60800.00. PMID 11779087.
  13. Logdberg, B.; Nilsson, L.-L.; Levander, M. T.; Levander, S. (2004). "Schizophrenia, neighbourhood, and crime". Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 110 (2): 92–7. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0047.2004.00322.x. PMID 15233709.

Other websites[change | change source]