Prince of Orange

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Coat of arms of the Principality of Orange.
See also: Princess of Orange

Prince of Orange is a title of nobility.

The title is used by members of the House of Orange-Nassau, as heirs to the crown of the Netherlands. It also used by members of the House of Hohenzollern. At the moment, the title is used by Prince Willem-Alexander of the Netherlands (Orange-Nassau), Georg Friedrich, Prince of Prussia (Hohenzollern) and Guy, Marquis de Mailly-Neslé, Prince d'Orange.

The history of the title[change | edit source]

Four generations Princes of Orange - William I, Maurice and Frederick Henry, William II, William III (Willem van Honthorst, 1662)

The title was at first related to a self-ruling state called the Principality of Orange. It lies in the south of what we now call France. The land was the property of the house of Orange and from 1544 of the house of Orange-Nassau.

The last of the original princes, René of Nassau, left the principality to his cousin William the Silent after he died. William the Silent was not related to the original house of Orange, but was the legal heir.

In a war in 1673, Louis XIV of France took over the lands of the principality and added them to his own royal domain. This was part of the war against the stadtholder William III of Orange. Louis XIV then gave the principality to Louis of Mailly-Nesles, marquis of Nesles (1689–1764), a very remote relation of the original princes of Orange[source?]. His descendant still claims the title today. In 1714, Louis XIV allowed Prince Louis Armand of Bourbon-Conti to use the land of the Principality to make money. Prince Louis Armand died in 1727 and the principality was merged in the Crown in 1731.

William III died without legitimate children. This meant that the principality was seen as inherited by his closest cognate relative on the basis of the testament of Frederic-Henry, Frederick I of Prussia[source?]. He handed over the principality's lands but not the title to France in 1713. France supported his claim. In this way, the territory of the principality was no longer a separate state, but became a part of France. Through the Treaty of Utrecht. A new "Principality of Orange" was created by the King of Prussia as part of the duchy of Gelderland.[source?]. The kings of Prussia and the German emperors styled themselves Princes of Orange till 1918.

John William Friso of Nassau was chosen as the heir to the princes of Orange in the Netherlands by the last will of William III. John William Friso was also related to William the Silent through the female line. Several of his descendants became stadtholders. They claim the principality of Orange on the basis of agnatic inheritance (inheritance of lands to the brother rather than the sons of the king)[source?]. This way of inheriting is similar to the way William the Silent inherited from his cousin René. The claim to the title is also on basis of the testament of Philips William, Maurice and William III. Although they claimed the title "Prince of Orange", France never allowed them to obtain anything of the lands of the principality itself. It is from this tradition that later stadtholders of the Netherlands, and the present-day royal family of the Netherlands, also hold the title.

People with title Prince of Orange[change | edit source]

As sovereign prince of Orange[change | edit source]

Until 1340, it was customary for all sons of the prince of Orange to inherit the title. Only the direct line of descent to Raimond V is shown here.

House of Baux[change | edit source]

Picture Name Birth Created Prince of Orange Stopped to be Prince of Orange Death Other titles while Prince of Orange Princess
of
Orange
Sceau baux-orange.jpg Prince Bertrand I 1110/1115 1173
After the death of his brother-in-law, Raimbaut, Count of Orange, the County of Orange was made more important and became a principality and given to Bertrand I by the Holy Roman Emperor Frederick I.
April/October 1180 Lord of Baux Tibors de Sarenom

House of Baux-Orange[change | edit source]

Picture Name Birth Became Prince of Orange Stopped to be Prince of Orange Death Other titles while Prince of Orange Princess
of
Orange
Prince William I 1155 31 October 1180 bef. 30 July 1218 Co-Prince (with brothers); Lord of Baux 1. Ermengarde of Mévouillon
2. Alix
Prince William II - 31 October 1180 bef. 1 November 1239 Co-Prince (with brothers); Lord of Baux Précieuse
Prince Raymond I - bef. 30 July 1218 1282 Lord of Baux Malberjone of Aix
Prince Bertrand II - 1282 aft. 21 July 1314 Lord of Baux Eleanore of Geneva
Prince Raymond II - aft. 21 July 1314 1340, aft. 9 September Lord of Baux and Condorcet Anne of Viennois
Prince Raymond III - aft. 9 September 1340 10 February 1393 Lord of Baux 1. Constance of Trian
2. Jeanne of Geneva
Princess Mary - 10 February 1393 October 1417 Lady of Arlay, Cuiseaux, and Vitteaux Prince John I

House of Châlon-Arlay (also House of Ivrea of Anscarid dynasty)[change | edit source]

Picture Name Birth Became Prince of Orange Stopped to be Prince of Orange Death Other titles while Prince of Orange Princess
of
Orange
Blason famille fr Chalon Orange.svg Prince John I - 10 February 1393 October 1417 2 September 1418 Lord of Arlay, Cuiseaux and Vitteaux Princess Mary
Blason famille fr Chalon Orange.svg Prince Louis I 1390 October 1417 3 December 1463 Lord of Arlay, Arguel, Orbe, and Echelens 1. Jeanne of Montbéliard
2. Eleanor d'Armagnac
3. Blanche of Gamaches
Blason famille fr Chalon Orange.svg Prince William II - 3 December 1463 27 September 1475 Lord of Arlay and Arguel Catherine of Brittany
Blason famille fr Chalon Orange.svg Prince John II 1443 27 September 1475 15 April 1502 Count of Tonnerre; Lord of Arlay, Arguel and Montfaucon; Admiral of Guyenne. 1. Jeanne de Bourbon
2. Philiberte of Luxembourg
Philibert de Chalon.jpg Prince Philibert 18 March 1502 15 April 1502 3 August 1530 Viceroy of Naples; Prince of Melfi; Duke of Gravina; Count of Tonnerre, Charny, Penthièvre; Viscount of Besançon; Lord of Arlay, Nozeroy, Rougemont, Orgelet and Montfaucon, Lieutenant-General in the Imperial army. no wife

House of Nassau[change | edit source]

Picture Name Birth Became Prince of Orange Stopped to be Prince of Orange Death Other titles while Prince of Orange Princess
of
Orange
Rene van Chalon.jpg Prince René 5 February 1519 3 August 1530 15 July 1544 Stadtholder of Holland, Zeeland, Utrecht and Guelders; Count of Nassau, and Vianden; Viscount of Antwerp; Baron of Breda, Diest, Herstal, Warneton, Beilstein, Arlay, and Nozeroy; Lord of Dasburg, Geertruidenberg, Hooge en Lage Zwaluwe, Klundert, Montfort, Naaldwijk, Niervaart, Polanen, Steenbergen, Bütgenbach, Sankt Vith, and Besançon. Anna of Lorraine

House of Orange-Nassau (first creation)[change | edit source]

Picture Name Birth Became Prince of Orange Stopped to be Prince of Orange Death Other titles while Prince of Orange Princess
of
Orange
WilliamOfOrange1580.jpg Prince William I 24 April 1533 15 July 1544 10 July 1584 Stadtholder of Holland, Zeeland, Utrecht and Friesland; Marquis of Veere and Vlissingen, Count of Nassau-Dillenburg, Katzenelnbogen, and Vianden; Viscount of Antwerp; Baron of Breda, Lands of Cuijk, City of Grave, Diest, Herstal, Warneton, Beilstein, Arlay, and Nozeroy; Lord of Dasburg, Geertruidenberg, Hooge en Lage Zwaluwe, Klundert, Montfort, Naaldwijk, Niervaart, Polanen, Steenbergen, Willemstad, Bütgenbach, Sankt Vith, and Besançon. 1. Anna van Egmont
2. Anna of Saxony
3. Charlotte de Bourbon
4. Louise de Coligny
Workshop of Michiel Jansz. van Mierevelt 003.jpg Prince Philip William 19 December 1554 10 July 1584 20 February 1618 Count of Nassau-Dillenburg, Buren, Leerdam, Katzenelnbogen, and Vianden; Viscount of Antwerp; Baron of Breda, Cranendonck, Lands of Cuijk, Eindhoven, City of Grave, IJsselstein, Diest, Herstal, Warneton, Beilstein, Arlay, and Nozeroy; Lord of Dasburg, Geertruidenberg, Hooge en Lage Zwaluwe, Klundert, Montfort, Naaldwijk, Niervaart, Polanen, Steenbergen, Sint-Maartensdijk, Willemstad, Bütgenbach, Sankt Vith, and Besançon. Éléonore de Bourbon
Workshop of Michiel Jansz. van Mierevelt 004.jpg Prince Maurice 14 November 1567 20 February 1618 23 April 1625 Stadtholder of Holland, Zeeland, Utrecht, Guelders, Overijssel and Groningen; Marquis of Veere and Vlissingen; Count of Nassau-Dillenburg, Buren, Leerdam, Katzenelnbogen, and Vianden; Viscount of Antwerp; Baron of Aggeris, Breda, Cranendonck, Lands of Cuijk, Daesburg, Eindhoven, City of Grave, Lek, IJsselstein, Diest, Grimbergen, Herstal, Warneton, Beilstein, Bentheim-Lingen, Moers, Arlay, and Nozeroy; Lord of Dasburg, Geertruidenberg, Hooge en Lage Zwaluwe, Klundert, Montfort, Naaldwijk, Niervaart, Polanen, Steenbergen, Sint-Maartensdijk, Willemstad, Bütgenbach, Sankt Vith, and Besançon. no wife
After Gerard van Honthorst 002.jpg Prince Frederick Henry 29 January 1584 23 April 1625 14 March 1647 Stadtholder of Holland, Zeeland, Utrecht, Guelders, and Overijssel; Marquis of Veere and Vlissingen; Count of Nassau-Dillenburg, Buren, Leerdam, Katzenelnbogen, and Vianden; Viscount of Antwerp; Baron of Aggeris, Breda, Cranendonck, Lands of Cuijk, Daesburg, Eindhoven, City of Grave, Lek, IJsselstein, Diest, Grimbergen, Herstal, Warneton, Beilstein, Bentheim-Lingen, Moers, Arlay, and Nozeroy; Lord of Dasburg, Geertruidenberg, Hooge en Lage Zwaluwe, Klundert, Montfort, Naaldwijk, Niervaart, Polanen, Steenbergen, Sint-Maartensdijk, Willemstad, Bütgenbach, Sankt Vith, and Besançon. Amalia of Solms-Braunfels
After Gerard van Honthorst 003.jpg Prince William II 27 May 1626 14 March 1647 6 November 1650 Stadtholder of Holland, Zeeland, Utrecht, Guelders and Overijssel; Marquis of Veere and Vlissingen; Count of Nassau-Dillenburg, Buren, Leerdam, Katzenelnbogen, and Vianden; Viscount of Antwerp; Baron of Aggeris, Breda, Cranendonck, Lands of Cuijk, Daesburg, Eindhoven, City of Grave, Lek, IJsselstein, Diest, Grimbergen, Herstal, Warneton, Beilstein, Bentheim-Lingen, Moers, Arlay, and Nozeroy; Lord of Dasburg, Geertruidenberg, Hooge en Lage Zwaluwe, Klundert, Montfort, Naaldwijk, Niervaart, Polanen, Steenbergen, Sint-Maartensdijk, Turnhout, Willemstad, Zevenbergen, Bütgenbach, Sankt Vith, and Besançon. Mary, Princess Royal
King William III.jpg William III 14 November 1650 6 November 1650 8 March 1702 King of England, Scotland, and Ireland, Stadtholder of Holland, Zeeland, Utrecht, Guelders, and Overijssel; Marquis of Veere and Vlissingen; Count of Nassau-Dillenburg, Buren, Leerdam, Katzenelnbogen, and Vianden; Viscount of Antwerp; Baron of Aggeris, Breda, Cranendonck, Lands of Cuijk, Daesburg, Eindhoven, City of Grave, Lek, IJsselstein, Diest, Grimbergen, Herstal, Warneton, Beilstein, Bentheim-Lingen, Moers, Arlay, and Nozeroy; Lord of Baarn, Bredevoort, Dasburg, Geertruidenberg, Hooge en Lage Zwaluwe, Klundert, 't Loo, Montfort, Naaldwijk, Niervaart, Polanen, Steenbergen, Sint-Maartensdijk, Soest, Ter Eem, Turnhout, Willemstad, Zevenbergen, Bütgenbach, Sankt Vith, and Besançon. Queen Mary II of England

As a personal title or as heir apparent[change | edit source]

House of Orange-Nassau (second creation)[change | edit source]

As personal title of nobility:

Picture Name Heir of Birth Became Prince of Orange Stopped to be Prince of Orange Death Other titles while Prince of Orange Princess
of
Orange
JohanWillemFriso.jpg Prince John William Friso William III 4 August 1687 8 March 1702 14 July 1711 Stadtholder of Friesland and Groningen; Fürst of Nassau-DietzFürst of Orange-Nassau; Marquis of Veere and Vlissingen; Count of Buren, Leerdam, Katzenelnbogen, Spiegelberg, and Vianden; Viscount of Antwerp; Baron of Aggeris, Breda, Cranendonck, Lands of Cuijk, Daesburg, Eindhoven, City of Grave, Lek, IJsselstein, Diest, Grimbergen, Herstal, Warneton, Beilstein, Arlay, and Nozeroy; Hereditary Lord of Ameland; Lord of Baarn, Bredevoort, Dasburg, Geertruidenberg, Hooge en Lage Zwaluwe, Klundert, Liesveld, 't Loo, Montfort, Naaldwijk, Niervaart, Polanen, Steenbergen, Sint-Maartensdijk, Soest, Ter Eem, Turnhout, Willemstad, Zevenbergen, Bütgenbach, Sankt Vith, and Besançon. Landgravine Marie Louise of Hesse-Kassel
Guillaume IV d'Orange-Nassau.jpg Prince William IV Prince John William Friso 1 September 1711 22 October 1751 General Stadtholder of the United Provinces; Fürst of Orange-Nassau; Marquis of Veere and Vlissingen; Count of Buren, Culemborg, Leerdam, and Vianden; Viscount of Antwerp; Baron of Aggeris, Breda, Cranendonck, Lands of Cuijk, Daesburg, Eindhoven, City of Grave, Lek, IJsselstein, Diest, Grimbergen, Herstal, Warneton, Arlay, and Nozeroy; Hereditary Lord of Ameland; Lord of Baarn, Bredevoort, Dasburg, Geertruidenberg, Hooge en Lage Zwaluwe, Klundert, Liesveld, 't Loo, Montfort, Naaldwijk, Niervaart, Polanen, Steenbergen, Sint-Maartensdijk, Soest, Ter Eem, Turnhout, Willemstad, Zevenbergen, Bütgenbach, Sankt Vith, and Besançon. Anne, Princess Royal
WillemV.png Prince William V Prince William IV 8 March 1748 22 October 1751 9 April 1806 General Stadtholder of the United Provinces; Fürst of Orange-Nassau; Marquis of Veere and Vlissingen; Count of Buren, Culemborg, Leerdam, and Vianden; Viscount of Antwerp; Baron of Aggeris, Breda, Cranendonck, Lands of Cuijk, Daesburg, Eindhoven, City of Grave, Lek, IJsselstein, Diest, Grimbergen, Herstal, Warneton, Arlay, and Nozeroy; Hereditary Lord of Ameland; Lord of Baarn, Bredevoort, Borculo, Dasburg, Geertruidenberg, Hooge en Lage Zwaluwe, Klundert, Lichtenvoorde, Liesveld, 't Loo, Montfort, Naaldwijk, Niervaart, Polanen, Steenbergen, Sint-Maartensdijk, Soest, Ter Eem, Turnhout, Willemstad, Zevenbergen, Bütgenbach, Sankt Vith, and Besançon. Princess Wilhelmine of Prussia
Willemi.jpg Prince William VI
later William I
Prince William V 24 August 1772 9 April 1806 16 March 1815
title dropped when invested as first King of the Netherlands
7 October 1840 Fürst of Orange-Nassau; Marquis of Veere and Vlissingen; Count of Buren, Culemborg, Leerdam, and Vianden; Viscount of Antwerp; Baron of Aggeris, Breda, Cranendonck, Lands of Cuijk, Daesburg, Eindhoven, City of Grave, Lek, IJsselstein, Diest, Grimbergen, Herstal, Warneton, Arlay, and Nozeroy; Hereditary Lord of Ameland; Lord of Baarn, Bredevoort, Borculo, Geertruidenberg, Hooge en Lage Zwaluwe, Klundert, Lichtenvoorde, Liesveld, 't Loo, Montfort, Naaldwijk, Niervaart, Polanen, Steenbergen, Sint-Maartensdijk, Soest, Ter Eem, Turnhout, Willemstad, Zevenbergen, Bütgenbach, Sankt Vith, and Besançon. Wilhelmine of Prussia

As royal title for the heir apparent:

Picture Name Heir of Birth Became Heir to the Crown Created Prince of Orange Stopped to be Prince of Orange Death Other titles while Prince of Orange Princess
of
Orange
YoungwilliamII.jpg Prince William
later William II
William I 6 December 1792 16 March 1815
father's accession as King
7 October 1840
became King
17 March 1849 Prince of the Netherlands, Prince of Orange-Nassau Grand Duchess Anna Pavlovna of Russia
William III of the Netherlands.jpg Prince William
later William III
William II 19 February 1817 7 October 1840
father's accession as King
17 March 1849
became King
23 November 1890 Prince of the Netherlands, Prince of Orange-Nassau Princess Sophie of Württemberg
Dutch Crown Prince Willem.jpg Prince William William III 4 September 1840 17 March 1849
father's accession as King
11 June 1879 Prince of the Netherlands, Prince of Orange-Nassau no wife
Alexander der Nederlanden 1851 - 1884.jpg Prince Alexander 25 August 1851 11 June 1879
brother's death
21 June 1884 Prince of the Netherlands, Prince of Orange-Nassau no wife
Guilherme Alexandre, príncipe de Orange.jpg Prince Willem-Alexander
[1]
Beatrix 27 April 1967 30 April 1980
mother's accession as Queen regnant
Incumbent Prince of the Netherlands, Prince of Orange-Nassau, Jonkheer van Amsberg Máxima Zorreguieta

House of Hohenzollern[change | edit source]

House of Mailly[change | edit source]

  • Louis de Mailly, Marquis de Nesle et de Mailly, appointed by the French king, and his descendants, currently Guy, Marquis de Nesle and of Mailly, Prince d'Orange.

House of Bourbon[change | edit source]

Related pages[change | edit source]

References[change | edit source]

More reading[change | edit source]

  • Herbert H. Rowen, The princes of Orange: the stadholders in the Dutch Republic. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 1988.
  • Reina van Ditzhuyzen, Het Huis van Oranje: prinsen, stadhouders, koningen en koninginnen. Haarlem : De Haan, [1979].

Other websites[change | edit source]