Aurangzeb

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Aurangzeb
اورنگ‌زیب
Aurangzeb.png
Portrait of Aurangzeb
Fictional flag of the Mughal Empire.svg 6th Mughal Emperor
Reign31 July 1658 – 3 March 1707
Coronation13 June 1659
PredecessorShah Jahan
SuccessorMuhammad Azam Shah
Born(1618-11-04)4 November 1618 (N.S.)
Dahod, Mughal Empire
Died3 March 1707(1707-03-03) (aged 88)
Ahmednagar, India
Burial
HouseTimurid
DynastyTimurid
FatherShah Jahan
MotherMumtaz Mahal
ReligionIslam

Muhi al-Din Muhammad (Arabic: محی الدین محمد, romanized: Muḥī al-Dīn Muḥammad), better known as Aurangzeb (Arabic: اورنگ‌زیب) was the sixth emperor of the Mughal Empire. He ruled over most of the Indian subcontinent through Islamic Sharia. His reign lasted for 49 years from 1658 until he died in 1707. During this time, Aurangzeb greatly expanded the territory of the Mughal Empire. He was constantly at war. Victories in the south expanded the Empire to more than 4  million square kilometres as he was the only ruler after Emperor Ashoka to rule over such a largest land as a result unifying the entirety of the Indian Subcontinent (South Asia) under one ruler after two millennia. His empire was the world's largest economy, valued at 27% of the world's GDP. He was the last great and powerful ruler of the Mughal dynasty. After his death, the power of the Mughal Empire declined quickly due to weak and ineffective successors. His administration of the Mughal Empire led to its apex in terms of territory and wealth. He defeated the British in their fruitless attempt to colonize India as matter of fact after the humiliating defeat of Brits (EIC), they had to prostrate on a mat before the emperor and begged for forgiveness but were forgiven later after paying a large sum in compensation and promise never to dare such insolence. Emperor Aurangzeb's exchequer raised a record £100 million in annual revenue through various sources like taxes, customs and land revenue, et al. from 24 provinces. He had annual yearly revenue of $450 million, more than ten times that of his contemporary {Louis XIV of France}. Aurangzeb was well educated and ambitious. He compiled the Fatawa Alamgiri, which served as the Islamic law of India.[1][2]

His full name was Abdul Muzaffar Muhi-ud-Din Mohammad Aurangzeb. His imperial title was Alamgir, which means 'The World Conqueror'.[3][4]

Aurangzeb's Reforms[change | change source]

He reintroduced the practice of Jaziya (which is 2.5 per cent of an individual's annual savings) and banned the old Hindu practice of suttee. He banned the consumption of alcohol and singing in court.

He was popular with traders as he abolished more than 80 sorts of local taxes levied by the previous rulers

Conflicts with the Rajputs[change | change source]

Aurangzeb had to deal with the Rajput rulers of Marwar, Mewar and Jaipur. Raja Jai Singh of Jaipur was sent to the Deccan, where he died in 1666. Raja Jaswant Singh of Marwar was deputed to the north-western frontier where he and his children died fighting the Afghan rebels(1678). With no successor to it, Aurangzeb occupied the throne of Marwar. However, a posthumous son of Rana Jaswant Singh named Ajit Singh was born and appeared to claim the throne. Aurangzeb refused to accept or acknowledge Ajit Sign as the successor. This began the Rajput Struggle against the Mughals till Aurangzeb's successor recognized Ajit SIgn as the ruler of Marwar. Rana Raj Singh of Mewar was also angered by Aurangzeb's anti-Rajput behaviour and supported Ajit Singhs cause.

References[change | change source]

  1. Brown, Katherine Butler (January 2007). "Did Aurangzeb Ban Music? Questions for the Historiography of his Reign". Modern Asian Studies. 41 (1): 79. doi:10.1017/S0026749X05002313.
  2. "Aurangzeb". History & Information. Retrieved 29 March 2018.
  3. Dictionary of Wars. Hoboken: Taylor and Francis. 2013. p. 387. ISBN 9781135954949.
  4. Thackeray, Frank W. (2012). John E. Findling (ed.). Events that formed the modern world : from the European Renaissance through the War on Terror. Santa Barbara, Calif.: ABC-CLIO. p. 248. ISBN 9781598849011.

Other websites[change | change source]

Media related to Aurangzeb at Wikimedia Commons

Aurangzeb
Born: 4 November 1618 Died: 3 March 1707
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Shah Jahan
Mughal Emperor
1658–1707
Succeeded by
Bahadur Shah I