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Abdul Muzaffar Muhi-ud-Din Mohammad Aurangzeb
Aurangzeb in old age 2.jpg
Aurangzeb reading the Quran.
Fictional flag of the Mughal Empire.svg 6th Mughal Emperor
Coronation13 June 1659
PredecessorShah Jahan
SuccessorMuhammad Azam Shah
Born(1618-11-04)4 November 1618 (N.S.)
Dahod, Mughal Empire
Died3 March 1707(1707-03-03) (aged 88)
Ahmednagar, India
FatherShah Jahan
MotherMumtaz Mahal

Muhi-ud-Din Muhammad[1] also known as Aurangzeb or by his title Alamgir [2] was the sixth emperor of the Mughal Empire. He ruled over most of the Indian subcontinent through Islamic Sharia. His reign lasted for 49 years from 1658 until his death in 1707. During this time, Aurangzeb greatly expanded the territory of the Mughal Empire. He was constantly at war. Victories in the south expanded the Empire to more than 4 million square kilometres as he was the only ruler after Emperor Ashoka to ruled over such a largest land as a result unifying the entirety of Indian Subcontinent (South Asia) under one ruler after two millennium. His empire was the world's largest economy, valued 27% of world's GDP. He was the last great and powerful ruler of the Mughal dynasty. After his death, the power of the Mughal Empire declined quickly due to weak and ineffective successors. His administration of Mughal empire led to its apex in terms of territory and wealth. He defeated the British in their fruitless attempt to colonize India as matter of fact after the humiliating defeat of Brits (EIC), they had to prostrate on mat before the emperor and begged for forgiveness but were forgiven later after paying a large sum in compensation and promise never to dare such insolence. Emperor Aurangzeb's exchequer raised a record £100 million in annual revenue through various sources like taxes, customs and land revenue, et al. from 24 provinces. He had an annual yearly revenue of $450 million, more than ten times that of his contemporary {Louis XIV of France}. Aurangzeb was well educated and ambitious. He compiled the Fatawa Alamgiri, which served as the Islamic law of India.[3][4]

His full name was Abdul Muzaffar Muhi-ud-Din Mohammad Aurangzeb. His imperial title was Alamgir, which means 'The World Conqueror'.

Aurangzeb's Reforms[change | change source]

He reintroduced the practice of Jaziya (which is 2.5 percent of an individual's annual savings) and banned the old Hindu practice of suttee. He banned the consumption of alcohol and singing in court.

He was popular with traders as he abolished more than 80 sort of local taxes levied by the previous rulers

References[change | change source]

  1. Thackeray, Frank W.; editors, John E. Findling (2012). Events that formed the modern world : from the European Renaissance through the War on Terror. Santa Barbara, Calif.: ABC-CLIO. p. 248. ISBN 9781598849011.CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link)
  2. Dictionary of Wars. Hoboken: Taylor and Francis. 2013. p. 387. ISBN 9781135954949.
  3. Brown, Katherine Butler (January 2007). "Did Aurangzeb Ban Music? Questions for the Historiography of his Reign". Modern Asian Studies. 41 (1): 79. doi:10.1017/S0026749X05002313.
  4. "Aurangzeb". History & Information. Retrieved 29 March 2018.

Other websites[change | change source]

Media related to Aurangzeb at Wikimedia Commons

Born: 4 November 1618 Died: 3 March 1707
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Shah Jahan
Mughal Emperor
Succeeded by
Bahadur Shah I