British occupation zone
Post-Nazi German occupation borders and territories from 1945 to 1949.
British (green), French (blue), American (orange) and Soviet (red) occupation zones. Saar Protectorate (light blue) in the west under the control of France.
Berlin is the quadripartite area shown within the red Soviet zone. Bremen consists of the two orange American exclaves in the British sector.
|Political structure||Military occupation|
|•||British zone||F. Mar. Montgomery|
|•||French zone||Gen. Lattre de Tassigny|
|•||US zone||Gen. Eisenhower|
|•||Soviet zone||Marshal G. K. Zhukov|
|Historical era||Cold War|
|•||Surrender||8 May 1945|
|•||Allied Control Council||5 July 1945|
|•||Saar Protectoratea||15 December 1947|
|•||Federal Republic of Germany||23 May 1949|
|•||German Democratic Republicb||7 October 1949|
|•||Final Settlementc||12 September 1990|
|Today part of||Germany|
|a.||Joined the Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany) on 1 January 1957.|
|b.||Reunited Germany by joining the Federal Republic of Germany on 3 October 1990.|
|c.||German reunification took place on 3 October 1990.|
|d.||The western Allied zones of Germany and the western sectors of Berlin.|
|e.||The Soviet zone of Germany and sector of Berlin.|
The four sectors of the Allied occupation of Berlin and exclaves.
Bremen and Bremerhaven were surrounded by the British Zone, but were given to the United States, so that the Americans had a port. What is now Rhineland-Palatinate was to be a part of the British Zone. It was given up to form part of the French occupation zone.
In May 1949 the British, French, and American zones were joined to form the Federal Republic of Germany. The military governors were replaced by civilian high commissioners. The high commissioners were part-governor and part-ambassador. The occupation officially continued until 1955. This is when the Federal Republic was became a fully sovereign state, the western occupation zones ceased to exist, and the high commissioners were replaced by normal ambassadors. But the four allied powers still had special rights and responsibilities in Germany until the Final Settlement of 1990.
The city of Berlin, however, was not part of either state and continued to be under Allied occupation until 1990.
The military governors and commissioners[change | change source]
Military governors[change | change source]
- 22 May 1945 - 30 April 1946 Sir Bernard Law Montgomery, 1st Viscount Montgomery of Alamein|Bernard Law Montgomery
- 1 May 1946 - 31 October 1947 William Sholto Douglas
- 1 November 1947 - 21 September 1949 Gen. Sir Brian Robertson, Bt.
High commissioners[change | change source]
- 21 September 1949 - 24 June 1950 Gen. Sir Brian Robertson, Bt.
- 24 June 1950 - 29 September 1953 Sir Ivone Kirkpatrick
- 29 September 1953 - 5 May 1955 Sir Frederick Hoyer-Millar