An artist's concept of Cassini next to the planet Saturn
|Mission type:||Fly-by, orbiter, and lander|
|Flyby of:||Jupiter, Venus, Earth, Saturn's moons|
|Launch date:||October 15 1997|
|Launch vehicle:||Titan IV-B/Centaur launch vehicle|
|Decay:||September 15, 2017|
The mission was made by NASA, the European Space Agency (ESA), and Italian Space Agency (ASI). The spacecraft had two main parts: the Cassini orbiter and the Huygens probe. It was launched on October 15, 1997 and entered into orbit around Saturn on July 1, 2004. It was the first spacecraft to orbit Saturn and the fourth one to visit Saturn (the others were fly-by's and did not enter orbit). The mission ended September 2017.
Cassini orbiter[change | change source]
The orbiter was named after the Italian-French astronomer Giovanni Domenico Cassini, who discovered some moons of Saturn. Most of the orbiter was designed and built by NASA, although ASI built and programmed some parts that talked to the Huygens probe. The spacecraft spent 13 years in orbit, sending back data. It visited many parts of the Saturn system until it was short of fuel. The Cassini-Huygens ended with a controlled crash into Saturn's atmosphere on September 15, 2017.
Huygens probe[change | change source]
ESA (European Space Agency) made the Huygens probe, named after the Dutch astronomer, mathematician, and physicist Christiaan Huygens who discovered Titan. On December 25 2004, the Huygens probe left the orbiter. A couple weeks later, the probe parachuted onto Saturn's largest moon Titan. Astronomers have wondered what the surface of Titan was like, since it was hidden under thick clouds. It is the only moon in our solar system with a thick atmosphere. The probe descended and sent pictures and other data back for scientists to study. After 90 minutes on the moon, the spacecraft stopped working, as expected. It is the farthest place we have ever landed a spacecraft. The pictures sent while parachuting showed rivers, probably of liquid methane. The surface is much too cold for water.
References[change | change source]
- "The Grand Finale Toolkit". NASA. https://saturn.jpl.nasa.gov/mission/grand-finale/overview/. Retrieved April 15, 2017.
Other websites[change | change source]
- Spacecraft Cassini is Visiting Saturn! — children's stories explaining the Cassini mission
- Cassini-Huygens Main Page at NASA
- Cassini Mission Homepage by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory
- Cassini-Huygens Mission Profile by NASA's Solar System Exploration
- Cassini Imaging Homepage
- Cassini information by the National Space Science Data Center (NSSDC).
- Photo Gallery - full coverage
- Cassini's Tour de Saturn part A, B, C, D, E, F – descriptions of the 4-year tour of Saturn by Bruce Moomaw
- SpaceflightNow news coverage of the mission
- Countdown to Cancel the Cassini Space Probe by the Baltimore Peace Network in 1997 due to concerns over the use of plutonium