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Erythropoietin, or Erythropoetin (EPO) is a hormone produced by the kidneys. Epoetin is a synthetic version.

Erythropoietin makes more red blood cells grow. It is used to treat anemia. Anemia can come from kidney failure, or from chemotherapy to fix cancer. The man-made hormone is made with cell cultures. The hormone is also used for blood doping in endurance sports although this is illegal in all athletic competitions.

It is also responsible for inhibiting gluconeogenesis, thus contributing to cure of type2 diabetes, glucose intolerance.