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Erythropoietin, or Erythropoetin (EPO) is a hormone produced by the kidneys. Epoetin is a synthetic version.

Erythropoietin makes more red blood cells grow. It is used to treat anemia. Anemia can come from kidney failure, or from chemotherapy to fix cancer. The man-made hormone is made with cell cultures. The hormone is also used for blood doping in endurance sports although this is illegal in all athletic competitions.