Gambit

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A gambit is a chess opening involving a sacrifice. In these openings a player, usually White, sacrifices (gives away) a pawn or more. The usual reason is to develop faster, and get an attack against the black king. An example:

Evans Gambit[change | change source]

Evans Gambit
abcdefgh
8
Chessboard480.svg
a8 black rook
c8 black bishop
d8 black queen
e8 black king
g8 black knight
h8 black rook
a7 black pawn
b7 black pawn
c7 black pawn
d7 black pawn
f7 black pawn
g7 black pawn
h7 black pawn
c6 black knight
a5 black bishop
c4 white bishop
e4 white pawn
b3 white queen
c3 black pawn
f3 white knight
a2 white pawn
b2 white pawn
f2 white pawn
g2 white pawn
h2 white pawn
a1 white rook
b1 white knight
c1 white bishop
f1 white rook
g1 white king
8
77
66
55
44
33
22
11
abcdefgh


1.e4 e5
2.Nf3 Nc6
3.Bc4 Bc5
4.b4 Bxb4
5.c3 Ba5
6.d4 exd4
7.0-0 dxc3
8.Qb3 and White has a serious attack for the pawns. 4.b4 is the Evans Gambit.



Benko Gambit[change | change source]

In modern times gambits are usually not for direct attacks on the king. They aim at 'positional' advantages, such as freer play for the pieces. A well-known example is the Benko Gambit:


Benko Gambit
abcdefgh
8
Chessboard480.svg
a8 black rook
b8 black knight
d8 black queen
f8 black rook
g8 black king
e7 black pawn
f7 black pawn
g7 black bishop
h7 black pawn
a6 black bishop
d6 black pawn
f6 black knight
g6 black pawn
c5 black pawn
d5 white pawn
c3 white knight
f3 white knight
g3 white pawn
a2 white pawn
b2 white pawn
e2 white pawn
f2 white pawn
g2 white bishop
h2 white pawn
a1 white rook
c1 white bishop
d1 white queen
f1 white rook
g1 white king
8
77
66
55
44
33
22
11
abcdefgh
1.d4 Nf6
2.c4 c5
3.d5 b5
4.cxb5 a6
5.bxa6 Bxa6
6.Nc3 d6
7.Nf3 g6
8.g3 Bg7
9.Bg2 0-0

In return for his pawn, Black gets open lines for his bishops and his rook on a8.