|Eastern Europe, Western Asia, South Asia|
The general location of Indo-European speakers in Europe and Asia.
The Indo-Iranian languages are the largest group of the Indo-European language family. They include the Indo-Aryan (Indic) and Iranic (Iranian) languages. They are mostly spoken in the Indian subcontinent and the Iranian plateau. Originally, they were spoken in Central Asia, to the east of the Caspian Sea.
Indo-Aryan languages[change | change source]
There are about 221 Indo-Aryan (Indic) languages, with more than 800 million speakers.
Below are the most widely spoken Indo-Aryan languages.
- Punjabi (official language in India; regional de-facto co-official provincial language in Pakistan)
- Bengali (official language in Bangladesh; regional official language in India)
- Marathi (regional official language in India)
- Hindustani (in the form of Urdu; official language in Pakistan; regional official language in India alongside Hindi, another form of Hindustani)
Iranian languages[change | change source]
There are about 86 Iranian languages, with between 150 and 200 million speakers.
Below are the most widely spoken Iranian languages.
- Persian (official language in Iran; also official as Dari in Afghanistan and as Tajik in Tajikistan)
- Pashto (official language in Afghanistan)
- Kurdish (official language in the Kurdistan Region of Iraq)
Nuristani, Bangani, and Badeshi[change | change source]
Some scholars consider the Nuristani and Bangani languages as part of the Indo-Aryan subgroup, but some other scholars consider them as two separate subgroups of Indo-Iranian. The Badeshi language is also an unclassified Indo-Iranian language.