International Space Station

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International Space Station
A rearward view of the International Space Station backdropped by the limb of the Earth. In view are the station's four large, gold-coloured solar array wings, two on either side of the station, mounted to a central truss structure. Further along the truss are six large, white radiators, three next to each pair of arrays. In between the solar arrays and radiators is a cluster of pressurised modules arranged in an elongated T shape, also attached to the truss. A set of blue solar arrays are mounted to the module at the aft end of the cluster.
The International Space Station on 23 May 2010 as seen from the departing Space Shuttle Atlantis during STS-132
NamesSpace Station Freedom (1988-93)
Space Station Alpha (1993-98)
COSPAR ID1998-067A
SATCAT no.25544
Spacecraft properties
Spacecraft typeSpace Station
ManufacturerUnited States
United Kingdom
BOL mass19,323 kilograms (42,600 pounds)
Dry mass419,725 kilograms (925,335 pounds)[1]
Crew size6
CallsignAlpha, Station
Start of mission
Launch date20 November 1998; 20 years ago (1998-11-20)
Launch siteBaikonur 81
End of mission
Declaredc. 2024
Orbital parameters
Reference systemGeocentric
RegimeLow Earth
Perigee408 kilometres (254 miles) AMSL[2]
Apogee410 kilometres (250 miles) AMSL[2]
Inclination51.64 degrees[2]
Period1.5447 hours (92.68 minutes)[2]
Mean motion15.54[2]
Velocity7.66 kilometres per second[2]
(27,600 kilometres per hour; 17,100 miles per hour)
Epoch28 November 2018, 14:37:49 UTC[2]
ISS insignia.svg
International Space Station program
← Space Shuttle program

The International Space Station (ISS) is a space station, a very large satellite that people can live in for several months at a time. It was put together in Low Earth orbit up until 2011, but other bits have been added since then. The last part, a Bigelow module was added in 2016. The station is a joint project among several countries: the United States, Russia, Europe, Japan, and Canada. Other nations such as Brazil, Italy, and China also work with the ISS through cooperation with other countries.

Building the ISS began in 1998, when Russian and American space modules were joined together.

Origin[change | change source]

In the early 1980s, NASA planned Space Station Freedom as a counterpart to the Soviet Salyut and Mir space stations. It never left the drawing board and, with the end of the Soviet Union and the Cold War, it was cancelled. The end of the Space race prompted the U.S. administration officials to start negotiations with international partners Europe, Russia, Japan and Canada in the early 1990s in order to build a truly international space station. This project was first announced in 1993 and was called Space Station Alpha.[3] It was planned to combine the proposed space stations of all participating space agencies: NASA's Space Station Freedom, Russia's Mir-2 (the successor to the Mir Space Station, the core of which is now Zvezda) and ESA's Columbus that was planned to be a stand-alone spacelab.

Assembly[change | change source]

The assembly of the International Space Station is a great event in space architecture.[4] Russian modules launched and docked by their rockets. All other pieces were delivered by the Space Shuttle. As of 5 June 2011, they had added 159 components during more than 1,000 hours of EVA.[5] Many of the modules that launched on the Space Shuttle were tested on the ground at the Space Station Processing Facility to find and correct problems before launch.

The first section, the Zarya Functional Cargo Block, was put in orbit in November 1998 on a Russian Proton rocket. Two further pieces (the Unity Module and Zvezda service module) were added before the first crew, Expedition 1, was sent. Expedition 1 docked to the ISS on 1 November 2000, and consisted of U.S. astronaut William Shepherd and two Russian cosmonauts, Yuri Gidzenko and Sergey Krikalev.

Assembly of the International Space Station
Module Launch vehicle Launch Date Separate View View with station
Zarya Proton-K 20 November 1998 Zarya.jpg Zarya.jpg
Unity Space Shuttle Endeavour 4 December 1998 ISS Unity module.jpg Sts088-703-019e.jpg
Zvezda Proton-K 12 July 2000 View of the bottom of Zvezda.jpg Unity-Zarya-Zvezda STS-106.jpg
Destiny Space Shuttle Atlantis 7 February 2001 ISS Destiny Lab.jpg Sts098-312-0020.jpg
Quest Space Shuttle Atlantis 12 July 2001 ISS Quest airlock.jpg ISS on 20 August 2001.jpg
Pirs Progress M-SO1 14 September 2001 Pirs docking module taken by STS-108.jpg S108e5628.jpg
Harmony Space Shuttle Discovery 23 October 2007 Harmony Relocation.jpg ISS seen from STS-122.jpg
Columbus Space Shuttle Atlantis 7 February 2008 Columbus module - cropped.jpg STS-122 ISS Flyaround.jpg
Kibo(ELM) Space Shuttle Endeavour 11 March 2008 STS-126 EVA4 Bowen01.jpg STS-123 ISS Flyaround cropped.jpg
Kibo(PM) Space Shuttle Discovery 31 May 2008 STS-124 Kibo.jpg ISS after STS-124 06 2008 cropped.jpg
Poisk Progress M-MIM2 10 November 2009 Poisk.Jpeg STS-129 Atlantis approaches below the ISS.jpg
Tranquility and Cupola Space Shuttle Endeavour 8 February 2010 Tranquility-node3.JPG ISSpoststs130.jpg
Rassvet Space Shuttle Atlantis 14 May 2010 STS-132 ISS-23 Rassvet Pirs and Progress M-05M.jpg International Space Station after undocking of STS-132.jpg
Leonardo Space Shuttle Discovery 24 February 2011 Leonardo PMM module.jpg STS-133 International Space Station after undocking.jpg
Expandable Activity Module
Dragon 8 April 2016 BEAM mockup.jpg

Life in space[change | change source]

Bedtime[change | change source]

People living in the space station have to get used to all kinds of changes from life on Earth. It takes them only 90 minutes to orbit (go around) the earth, so the sun looks as if it is rising and setting 16 times a day. This can be confusing, especially when one is trying to decide when he should go to bed. The astronauts try to keep a 24-hour-schedule anyway. At bedtime, they have to sleep in sleeping bags that are stuck to the wall. They have to strap themselves inside so they will not float away while sleeping.[6]

Zero gravity[change | change source]

In orbit there is no G-Force (this is called free fall or zero gravity). To help prepare astronauts experience zero gravity, NASA trainers put the astronauts in water. Because water makes one float, this is a little like experiencing no gravity. However, in water he can push against the water and move around. In zero gravity, there is nothing to push against, so he just floats in the air. Another way of training is going in a plane and making the plane fall to earth very quickly. This lets people experience zero gravity for a very short time. This training can make people quite sick at first.

In zero gravity, the astronauts do not use their legs very much, so they need to get lots of exercise to keep them from becoming too weak. Without gravity, astronauts can get big upper bodies and skinny legs. This is called chicken-leg syndrome. Astronauts must exercise hard, every day, to remain healthy.

Eating in space style is difficult. Water and other liquids do not flow down in space, so if any were spilled in the space station, it would float around everywhere. Liquids can ruin electronic equipment, so astronauts have to be very careful in space. They drink by sucking water out of a bag, or from a tube stuck to the wall. They cannot put their food on plates because it would just float right off, so they put it in pouches and eat from the pouches. The food they eat is usually dried, because any crumbs can ruin the equipment.
Sometimes fresh fruits and vegetables are sent up to the astronauts, but it is very expensive and hard to send it, so they have to bring plenty of food with them.[6]

Bathroom[change | change source]

Actually, in space, the bathroom should probably be called the restroom instead, because one really can not take baths there. Instead, astronauts use squirt guns to take a shower. One person squirts himself with a gun while other people stand outside with a water vacuum to get rid of all the water that floats out of the shower. This is quite hard, so astronauts usually just take a "sponge bath" with a wet cloth.
Toilets can be another problem. Toilets are supposed to use gravity to work. When one flush the toilet, gravity makes the water go down. Since the astronauts on the ISS do not feel any gravity, the toilet must be attached to the astronauts and gently suck away all their waste. [6]

References[change | change source]

  1. Garcia, Mark (9 May 2018). "About the Space Station: Facts and Figures". NASA. Retrieved 21 June 2018.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 Peat, Chris (28 September 2018). "ISS – Orbit". Heavens-Above. Retrieved 28 September 2018.
  3. GAO (June 1994). "Space Station: Impact of the Expanded Russian Role on Funding and Research" (PDF). GAO. Retrieved 3 November 2006.
  4. NASA (18 February 2010). "On-Orbit Elements" (PDF). NASA. Archived from the original (PDF) on 29 October 2009. Retrieved 19 June 2010.
  5. "The ISS to Date". NASA. 9 March 2011. Retrieved 21 March 2011.
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 "Living and Working on the International Space Station" (PDF). CSA. Retrieved 28 October 2009.

Other websites[change | change source]