Kingdom of Romania

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Kingdom of Romania (1881–1947)
Regatul României

National Legionary State (1940–1941)
Statul Național Legionar
Motto: Nihil Sine Deo
("Nothing without God")

Trăiască Regele
("Long live the King")
Greater coat of arms:
The Kingdom of Romania in 1939
The Kingdom of Romania in 1939
(1881–1916, 1918–1947)
Iași (Jassy)
Common languagesRomanian (official)[1]
German, and Hungarian
Romanian Orthodox
GovernmentConstitutional monarchy
(1881–1937; 1944–1947)
Absolute monarchy
Fascist dictatorship
(1937–1938; 1940–1941)
Military dictatorship
• 1881–1914
Carol I
• 1914–1927
Ferdinand I
• 1927–1930
Michael I (1st reign)
• 1930–1940
Carol II
• 1940–1947
Michael I (2nd reign)
Prime Minister 
• 1881
Ion Brătianu (first)
• 1940–1944
Ion Antonescu[a]
• 1945–1947
Petru Groza (last)
Chamber of Deputies
Historical eraBelle Époque • World War I • Interwar period • World War II
14 March 1881
10 August 1913
4 June 1920
29 March 1923
20 February 1938
14 September 1940
21 January 1941
23 August 1944
12 September 1944
30 December 1947
1915[b]138,000 km2 (53,000 sq mi)
1940[b][c]295,049 km2 (113,919 sq mi)
• 1915[b]
• 1940[b][c]
CurrencyRomanian Leu
Preceded by
Succeeded by
United Principalities
Kingdom of Bulgaria
Moldavian Democratic Republic
Duchy of Bukovina
Kingdom of Hungary
Soviet Union
Kingdom of Bulgaria
Socialist Republic of Romania
a. ^ Was formally declared Conducător (literally, "Leader") of the state on 6 September 1940, by a royal decree which consecrated a ceremonial role for the monarch.[2]
b. ^ Area and population according to Ioan Suciu, Istoria contemporana a României (1918–2005).[3]
c. ^ The indicator for the localities of Romania (1941).[4]

The Kingdom of Romania (or 'Romania' after 1969) was a constitutional monarchy which existed between 13 March 1881 and 30 December 1947, specified by the First (in 1866), and respectively, the Second Constitution of Roumania. Thus, the Kingdom of Romania began with the reign of King Carol I of Romania and later replaced by Michael I of Romania . It's Prime minister was Ion Antonescu who was prime minister from 1940-1944 . He was later executed in 1946 2 year's after the defeat of Nazi Germany, Italy, Hungary, Croatia, Romania, Bulgaria and Japan, which were the Countries in the Axis Powers who were defeated in 1945.

From 1859 to 1877, Romania evolved from a personal union of two vassal principalities (Moldavia and Wallachia) to a full-fledged independent kingdom. During 1918-20, at the end of World War I, Transylvania, Eastern Moldavia (Bessarabia), and Bukovina were united with the Kingdom of Romania. In 1940, Bessarabia, Northern Bukovina, Northern Transylvania and Southern Dobruja were ceded to the Soviet Union, Hungary and Bulgaria. In 1947 the last king was compelled to abdicate from throne. Socialist republic ruled by the Romanian Communist Party replaced the monarchy after Joseph Stalin occupied Romania in 1945 .

References[change | change source]

  1. "Constitutiunea din 1923" (in Romanian). Legislatie pentru Democratie. Archived from the original on 26 December 2018. Retrieved 19 September 2011.
  2. Dennis Deletant, Hitler's Forgotten Ally: Ion Antonescu and His Regime, Romania, 1940–1944, Palgrave Macmillan, London, 2006. ISBN 1-4039-9341-6
  3. Ioan Scurtu (2005). "Istoria contemporana a României (1918-2005)" (in Romanian). Bucharest. Retrieved 19 September 2011.
  4. Institutul Central de Statistică (1943). "Indicatorul localităților din România" (PDF) (in Romanian). Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 20 October 2015.