Kingdom of Romania

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Kingdom of Romania
Regatul României
Nihil Sine Deo
"Nothing without God"
Trăiască Regele
"Long live the King"
The Kingdom of Romania in 1939.
Capital Bucharest
(1881–1916 / 1918–1947)
Languages Romanian[1]
Religion Romanian Orthodox
Government Constitutional Monarchy (1881–1938, 1944-1947)
Military Dictatorship (1941-1944)
Single-party Fascist State (1938-1941)
 •  1881–1914 Carol I
 •  1914–1927 Ferdinand I
 •  1927–1930 Michael I (1st reign)
 •  1930–1940 Carol II
 •  1940–1947 Michael I (2nd reign)
Prime Minister
 •  1881 Ion Brătianu (first)
 •  1940–1944 Ion Antonescu[a]
 •  1946–1947 Petru Groza (last)
Legislature Parliament
 •  Upper house Senate
 •  Lower house Chamber of Deputies
Historical era Belle Époque / World War I / Interwar period / World War II
 •  Proclamation 14 March 1881
 •  Treaty of Trianon 4 June 1920
 •  Constitution adopted 29 March 1923
 •  Coup d'état of 1944 23 August 1944
 •  Soviet occupation 12 September 1944
 •  Republic proclaimed 30 December 1947
 •  1915[b] 138,000 km2 (53,000 sq mi)
 •  1939[b] 295,049 km2 (113,919 sq mi)
 •  1915[b] est. 7,900,000 
     Density 57/km2 (148/sq mi)
 •  1939[b] est. 20,000,000 
     Density 68/km2 (176/sq mi)
Currency Romanian Leu
Preceded by
Succeeded by
United Principalities
Bessarabia Governorate
Kingdom of Bulgaria
Socialist Republic of Romania
Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic
Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic
Kingdom of Bulgaria
Today part of  Bulgaria
a. ^ Was formally declared Conducător (literally, "Leader") of the state on 6 September 1940, by a royal decree which consecrated a ceremonial role for the monarch.[2]
b. ^ Area and population according to Ioan Suciu, Istoria contemporana a României (1918–2005).[3]

The Kingdom of Romania (or 'Romania' after 1969) was a constitutional monarchy which existed between 13 March 1881 and 30 December 1947, specified by the First (in 1866), and respectively, the Second Constitution of Roumania. Thus, the Kingdom of Romania began with the reign of King Carol I of Romania.

From 1859 to 1877, Romania evolved from a personal union of two vassal principalities (Moldavia and Wallachia) to a full-fledged independent kingdom. During 1918-20, at the end of World War I, Transylvania, Eastern Moldavia (Bessarabia), and Bukovina were united with the Kingdom of Romania. In 1940, Bessarabia, Northern Bukovina, Northern Transylvania and Southern Dobruja were ceded to the Soviet Union, Hungary and Bulgaria. In 1947 the last king was compelled to abdicate from throne. Socialist republic ruled by the Romanian Communist Party replaced the monarchy.

References[change | change source]

  1. "Constitutiunea din 1923" (in Romanian). Legislatie pentru Democratie. Retrieved 19 September 2011.
  2. Dennis Deletant, Hitler's Forgotten Ally: Ion Antonescu and His Regime, Romania, 1940–1944, Palgrave Macmillan, London, 2006. ISBN 1-4039-9341-6
  3. Ioan Scurtu (2005). "Istoria contemporana a a României (1918-2005)" (in Romanian). Bucharest. Retrieved 19 September 2011.