Kingdom of the Two Sicilies

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Kingdom of the Two Sicilies
Regno delle Due Sicilie
1816–1861
Flag
Flag
Coat of arms
Coat of arms
Anthem
Inno al Re
(Hymn to the King)
Location of the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies within Europe in 1839.
Capital Palermo
(1816–1817)
Naples
(1817–1861)
Languages Neapolitan, Sicilian, Italian, Arberesh, Molise Croatian, Griko, Greek-Bovesian, Gallo-Italic of Sicily
Religion Roman Catholicism
Government Absolute monarchy
(1816–1848; 1849–1861)
Constitutional monarchy
(1848–1849)
King
 •  1816–1825 Ferdinand I (first)
 •  1859–1861 Francis II (last)
History
 •  Edict of Bayonne[1][2]
 •  Edict of Ferdinand IV of Naples 12 December 1816
 •  Garibaldi's landing in Sicily 5 May 1860
 •  Declaration of Unification 17 March 1861
Area
 •  1860 111,900 km2 (43,200 sq mi)
Population
 •  1860 est. 8,703,000 
     Density 78/km2 (201/sq mi)
Currency Two Sicilies ducat
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Kingdom of Sicily
Kingdom of Naples
Kingdom of Italy
Today part of  Italy
A map showing the whole of Italy with the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies in red at the bottom.

The Kingdom of the Two Sicilies was a kingdom in southern Italy from 1816 until 1861. It was created by Ferdinand I of the Two Sicilies, after the Congress of Vienna of 1814, by uniting the Kingdom of Sicily and the Kingdom of Naples, which had been ruled by Joseph Bonaparte during the reign of Napoleon. The ruling dynasty was a cadet branch of the House of Bourbon.

The capital of the kingdom was Naples. Roman Catholicism was the state religion. The kingdom was full of corruption and poverty: mainly because of this, most of the population welcomed the Risorgimento with the unification of southern Italy to the rest of Italy in 1861.

In 1861, Giuseppe Garibaldi and his men, who were known as "red shirts", captured Sicily. This was welcomed by the local population. Garibaldi then crossed the Strait of Messina and captured Naples. South Italy and Sicily then joined the Kingdom of Italy.

Administrative division[change | change source]

The peninsula was divided into fifteen "departments" and the island of Sicily was divided into seven departments.[3] The island itself had a special administrative status[source?], with its base at Palermo.

After the Two Sicilies were conquered by Garibaldi, the departments became provinces of Italy.

Royal family[change | change source]

For a time the heir to the throne was given the title of "Hereditary Prince of Naples". But this was later changed to the Duke of Calabria after the uniting of the two kingdoms. Collectively the royal family generally lived at the Palace of Caserta. Children of the monarch were born with the style of Royal Highness as well as the title of Prince/ss of the Two Sicilies. Several males in the family were given titles such as "Duke of Castro", "Count of Caserta", "Prince of Salerno", a majority of which were lost due to a lack of male heirs. The present pretending monarch is Infante Carlos, Duke of Calabria, who does use the title of Duke of Calabria.

 
Peninsula Capital
1 Coat of Arms of Abruzzo Ultra I (last version).svg Abruzzo Ultra I Teramo
2 Coat of Arms of Abruzzo Ultra (wings inverted).svg Abruzzo Ultra II Aquila
3 Coat of Arms of Abruzzo Citra.svg Abruzzo Citra Chieti
4 Coat of Arms of Contado di Molise.svg Contado di Molise Campobasso
5 Coat of Arms of Terra di Lavoro.svg Terra di Lavoro Capua,
from 1818 Caserta
6 Coat of Arms of the Province of Naples (historical province).svg Province of Naples Naples
7 Coat of Arms of Principato Ultra.svg Principato Ultra Avellino(*)
8 Coat of Arms of Principato Citra.svg Principato Citra Salerno
9 Coat of Arms of Capitanata.svg Capitanata originally San Severo, then Foggia
10 Coat of Arms of Terra di Bari.svg Terra di Bari Bari
11 Coat of Arms of Terra d'Otranto.svg Terra d'Otranto Lecce
12 Coat of Arms of Basilicata.svg Basilicata Potenza
13 Coat of Arms of Calabria Citra.svg Calabria Citra Cosenza
14 Coat of Arms of Calabria Ultra.svg Calabria Ultra II Catanzaro
15 Coats of arms of None.svg Calabria Ultra I Reggio
 
Insular Capital
16 Coats of arms of None.svg Caltanissetta Caltanissetta
17 Coats of arms of None.svg Catania Catania
18 Coats of arms of None.svg Girgenti Girgenti
19 Coats of arms of None.svg Messina Messina
20 Coats of arms of None.svg Noto Noto
21 Coats of arms of None.svg Palermo Palermo
22 Coats of arms of None.svg Trapani Trapani

* The city of Benevento was formally included in this department, but it was occupied by the Papal States and was de facto an exclave of that country.

References[change | change source]

  1. Colletta P., History of the Kingdom of Naples: 1734-1825, p.71
  2. Proclaims with Murat's title. (Italian)
  3. (Italian) Pompilio Petitti (1851). Repertorio amministrativo ossia collezione di leggi, decreti, reali rescritti ecc. sull'amministrazione civile del Regno delle Due Sicilie, vol. 1. Naples: Stabilimento Migliaccio. pp. 1, 4.