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List of massacres in Azerbaijan

From Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The following is a list of massacres in Azerbaijan that have occurred in Azerbaijan.

Before 1988

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Name Year Date Location Deaths Targeted group Notes
Battle of Ganja (1804) 1804 February Ganja 3,000[1] – 7,000[2] Caucasian Tatar inhabitants of Ganja Civilians were massacred during the capture of the city by the Russians; some of the captured soldiers were executed[3]
Armenian–Tatar massacres of 1905–1907 1905–1907 February Baku; Nakhchivan; Shusha; Tiflis 3,000–10,000 Armenians, Azerbaijanis
Shamkhor Massacre 1918 January Şəmkir 1,000 armed Russian soldiers Russian soldiers killed by Azerbaijani nationalists[4][5][6]
March Days 1918 March 30–April 2 Azerbaijan 12,000–25,000 Azerbaijanis According to the statements of Azerbaijan representatives, "the Bolsheviks were helped by Armenians, eager to annihilate their old enemies and to seize their property".[8]
September Days 1918 September Baku 10,000–15,000 Armenians Armenians killed by the Army of Islam;[9][10]
Khaibalikend Massacre 1919 June 5–7 Nagorno-Karabakh 600–700 Armenians Armenians killed by armed ethnic Azerbaijani and Kurdish irregulars and Azerbaijani soldiers;[11] Villages of Khaibalikend, Jamillu, Karkujahan and Pahliul were destroyed[12][13]
Agulis Massacre 1919 December 24–25 Yuxarı Əylis 1,400[14][15] Armenians Early 20th century anti-Armenian massacre of the Armenian population of Agulis by the Turkish army accompanied by the Azerbaijani refugees from Zangezur which resulted in the destruction of the town of Agulis.[16][17]
Shusha pogrom 1920 March 22–26 Shusha 500–20,000[18][19] Armenians Armenians killed by Azerbaijanis;
1920 Ganja Revolt 1920 June Ganja 15,000 Azerbaijanis Bolsheviks slaughtered civilians including women and children after the capture of rebel Ganja. Many women were raped and Koran were burnt.[20][21]

Nagorno-Karabakh conflict

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The following is a list of massacres and pogroms, which took place in the course of the First Nagorno-Karabakh War and the 2020 Nagorno-Karabakh War between Armenians and Azerbaijanis.

Name Year Date Location Deaths Targeted group Notes
Sumgait pogrom 1988 February 27–March 1 Sumgait 32 (26 Armenians and 6 Azerbaijanis)[22] Armenians Armenians killed by Azerbaijanis; 20 ambulances were destroyed,[23] and reports detail widespread rape,[24] mutilation, robberies, and disembowling of fetuses[25][26]
Kirovabad pogrom 1988 November Kirovabad 130 Armenians Armenians Azeri-led pogrom directed against Armenian inhabitants of Kirovabad (now Ganja)
Baku Pogrom 1990 January 13 Baku 90 Armenians Armenians killed by Azerbaijanis; many incidents of rape, robbery, and torture;[27] 700 injured.[28][29]
Black January 1990 January 19–20 Baku, Azerbaijan 133–137 Peaceful protesters of the Azerbaijani national independence movement Killed by Soviet troops; ambulance workers rushing to help the wounded and random by-passers, including women and children, among the dead
Operation Ring 1991 30 April–15 May Shahumyan Province unknown Armenians number of casualties unknown, approximately 17 000 people displaced, gross human rights violations[30]
Capture of Gushchular and Malibeyli 1992 February 10–12 Malibeyli, Ashaghi Gushchular, Yukhari Gushchular villages of Shusha District 8 (per Helsinki Watch)[31]
15-50 (per Azerbaijan)[32]
Azerbaijanis Azerbaijanis killed by Armenian irregular armed units.[31]
Garadaghly Massacre 1992 February 17 Garadaghly 20–90 Azerbaijanis Azerbaijanis killed by Armenian troops[33]
Khojaly Massacre 1992 February 25–26 Khojaly, Azerbaijan More than 200[34][35] (per Human Rights Watch)

613[36] (per Azerbaijan)

Azerbaijanis Azerbaijanis killed by Armenian troops.
Maraga Massacre 1992 April 10 Maraga 40–100 Armenians Armenians killed (many decapitated); corpses buried in a mass grave outside the village.[37]


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  1. Peter Avery; William Bayne Fisher, Gavin Hambly, Charles Melville (1991-10-25). The Cambridge history of Iran: From Nadir Shah to the Islamic Republic. Cambridge University Press. p. 332. ISBN 978-0-521-20095-0.
  2. Mansoori, Firooz (2008). "17". Studies in History,Language and Culture of Azerbaijan (in Persian). Tehran: Hazar-e Kerman. p. 245. ISBN 978-600-90271-1-8.
  3. THE SIEGE AND ASSAULT OF FORTRESS GANJA Archived 2014-05-19 at the Wayback Machine ,(in Russian)
  4. The formation of the Soviet Union: communism and nationalism, 1917-1923 By Richard Pipes - page 103
  5. the Modern encyclopedia of Russian and Soviet history, Volume 39 by Joseph L. Wieczynski - page 170
  6. Wladimir S. Woytinsky: La Democratie. p. 113
  7. Michael Smith. "Pamiat' ob utratakh i Azerbaidzhanskoe obshchestvo/Traumatic Loss and Azerbaijani. National Memory". Azerbaidzhan i Rossiia: obshchestva i gosudarstva (Azerbaijan and Russia: Societies and States) (in Russian). Sakharov Center. Archived from the original on 1 April 2020. Retrieved 21 August 2011.
  8. "New Republics in the Caucasus". The New York Times Current History. 11 (2): 492. March 1920.
  9. Hovannisian. Armenia on the Road to Independence, p. 227.
  10. Human Rights Watch. Playing the "Communal Card": Communal Violence and Human Rights Archived 2012-10-11 at the Wayback Machine. New York: Human Rights Watch, 1995.
  11. Hovannisian, Richard. The Republic of Armenia: Vol. I, The First Year, 1918-1919. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1971, pp. 176-177, notes 51-52.
  12. (in Armenian) Vratsian, Simon. Հայաստանի Հանրապետութիւն (The Republic of Armenia). Paris: H.H.D. Amerikayi Publishing, 1928, pp. 286-87.
  13. Hovannisian. Republic of Armenia, Vol. I, p. 181.
  14. Shatan Nat’ali (1928). Turkism from Angora to Baku and Turkish Orientation. Translated by Punik Pub. the University of Michigan (published Jan 1, 2002). p. 84. ASIN B002H1PV5Y. 1,400 - massacre in Agulis in 1919
  15. Hovannisian, Richard G. (1982). The Republic of Armenia, Vol. II: From Versailles to London, 1919-1920. Berkeley: University of California Press. pp. 207–238. ISBN 0-520-04186-0.
  16. Bert Vaux (2008). Zok: The Armenian dialect of Agulis (PDF). In between Paris and Fresno: Armenian studies in honor of Dickran Kouymjian. pp. 283–301. city of Agulis, located in southeastern Nakhichevan. Following the massacre of the Armenian population of Agulis by the Turkish army in 1919[dead link]
  17. Mikail Mamedov (20 November 2018). "Reading the novel Stone Dreams on the 100th anniversary of the "Great Catastrophe"". Cambridge University Press. The novel also refers to the massacre committed by Turkish troops on Christmas of 1919 in the midst of the Armenian Genocide, 1915–1923. At that time, Turkish commander Adif-bey ordered the mass execution of the Armenian population in the author's home village Aylis (Agulis in Armenian). Almost all Armenians were killed, with the exception of a few young girls who by the late 1980s had turned into gray-haired women
  18. Richard G. Hovannisian. The Republic of Armenia, Vol. III: From London to Sèvres, February–August 1920
  19. Thomas de Waal. Black Garden: Armenia and Azerbaijan through Peace and War. ISBN 0-8147-1944-9
  20. The I.L.P.'s ALLIES. Soviet Massacre in the Caucasus // Western Gazette. — 1920. — 1 June. — page 12.
  21. 15,000 massacred // Cheltenham Chronicle. — 1920. — 2 June. — page 4
  22. "The Nagorny Karabakh conflict: origins, dynamics and misperceptions". c-r.org. Archived from the original on 5 July 2010.
  23. (in Russian) "Сумгаит, Один месяц поздно" ("Sumgait, One Month Later"). Moskovskiye Novosti. April 13, 1988.
  24. Shahmuratian. Sumgait Tragedy, Interview with Levon Akopyan, p. 227.
  25. Lee, Gary. "Eerie Silence Hangs Over Soviet City." Washington Post. September 4, 1988. p. A33. Retrieved August 24, 2012.
  26. Ein Volk, ein Land. Der Spiegel 13/1988
  27. Committee on the elimination of discrimination against women
  28. Europa World Year: Book 1 - Page 638, Taylor & Francis Group
  29. Thomas de Waal: Black Garden - Armenia and Azerbaijan Through Peace and War. New York University Press, 2003, p. 90
  30. Human Rights Watch/Helsinki (1994). Azerbaijan: Seven years of conflict in Nagorno-Karabakh. New York: Human Rights Watch, p. 9.
  31. 31.0 31.1 Denber, Rachel; Goldman, Robert K. (1992). Bloodshed in the Caucasus: escalation of the armed conflict in Nagorno Karabakh. Praeger Publishers. pp. 24–27. ISBN 0-275-96241-5. Retrieved 2010-12-20. Kalbajar.
  32. Denber, Rachel; Goldman, Robert K. (1992). Bloodshed in the Caucasus: escalation of the armed conflict in Nagorno Karabakh. Praeger Publishers. pp. 24–27. ISBN 0-275-96241-5. Retrieved 20 December 2010.
  33. "Letter dated 20 May 2005 from the Permanent Representative of Azerbaijan to the United Nations addressed to the Secretary-General" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 12 May 2009. Retrieved August 24, 2012.
  34. "Human Rights Watch World Report 1993 – The Former Soviet Union". Hrw.org. Archived from the original on 18 February 2015. Retrieved 28 April 2014.
  35. Human Rights Watch/Helsinki (Organization : U.S.) (1994). Azerbaijan : Seven years of conflict in Nagorno-Karabakh. Panico, Christopher., Rone, Jemera., Human Rights Watch (Organization). New York: Human Rights Watch. ISBN 1-56432-142-8. OCLC 32207851.
  36. "United Nations Security Council: Letter Dated 7 October 2001 from the Permanent Representative of the United States of America to the United Nations Addressed to the President of the Security Council". International Legal Materials. 40 (5): 1281. September 2001. doi:10.1017/s0020782900020878. ISSN 0020-7829. S2CID 232249484.
  37. Cox, Caroline and John Eibner. Ethnic Cleansing in Progress: War in Nagorno Karabakh. Zurich and Washington D.C.: Institute for Religious Minorities in the Islamic World, p. 58, 1993.