Míkmaq language

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Mi'kmaq
Míkmawísimk
Native toCanada, United States
RegionNova Scotia, New Brunswick, Prince Edward Island, Gaspé Peninsula, the island of Newfoundland, northern Maine, Boston, Massachusetts
Ethnicity14,200 Mi'kmaq (1998)[1]
Native speakers
8,300 (2010 & 2011 censuses)[1]
Official status
Recognised minority
language in
Language codes
ISO 639-2mic
ISO 639-3mic
Glottologmikm1235[2]
This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters. For a guide to IPA symbols, see Help:IPA.

The Mi'kmaq language (also spelled Míkmaq, Mi'gmaq, Mi'qmac, or priorly Micmac) is an Eastern Algonquian language spoken by nearly 9,000 Míkmaq in Canada, and another 1,200 in United States, out of a total ethnic Míkmaq population of roughly 40,000. The word Míkmaq is a plural word meaning 'my friends' (singular Míkm[3]); the adjectival form is Míkmaw.[4] The language's native name is Míkmawísimk [5] or Míkmwei[3] (in some dialects).

Writing system[change | change source]

Míkmaq is written with letters of the Roman alphabet. This writing system was created by missionaries in the 19th century. Before, the language was written in Míkmaq hieroglyphic writing, a script of partially-native origin.

Orthographies[change | change source]

IPA a a: e e: i i: ə dʒ/tʃ g/k l m n o o: b/p x s d/t u u: w j
Francis-Smith a á e é i í ɨ j k l m n o ó p q s t u ú w y
Listuguj a a' e e' i i' ' j g l m n o o' p q s t u u' w y
Lexicon a a: e e: i i: ɨ j k l m n o o: p q s t u u: w y
Pacifique a e i tj g l m n ô p s t o
Rand ă a â ĕ ā ĭ e ŭ ch c k l m n ŏ o ō b h s d t ŏŏ oo u w y

Notes[change | change source]

  1. 1.0 1.1 Mi'kmaq at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  2. Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Mi'kmaq". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  3. 3.0 3.1 Micmac Teaching Grammar. Delisle / Metallic 1976.
  4. Native Languages of the Americas: Mi'kmaq (Mi'kmawi'simk, Mi'kmaw, Micmac, Míkmaq)
  5. Chris Harvey's page on Míkmawísimk

References[change | change source]

  • Rand, Silas Tertius. 1888. Dictionary of the language of the Micmac Indians, who reside in Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Prince Edward Island, Cape Breton and Newfoundland. Halifax: Nova Scotia Printing Company. Reprinted 1994: New Delhi & Madras: Asian Educational Services, ISBN 81-206-0954-9

Other websites[change | change source]