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Polish People's Republic

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Polish People's Republic
Polska Rzeczpospolita Ludowa  (Polish)
Anthem: Mazurek Dąbrowskiego
"Poland Is Not Yet Lost"
The Polish People's Republic in 1989
The Polish People's Republic in 1989
StatusSatellite state of the Soviet Union[a]
and largest city
52°13′N 21°02′E / 52.217°N 21.033°E / 52.217; 21.033
Official languagesPolish
Roman Catholicism (de facto)
State atheism (de jure)
See Religion in Poland
Demonym(s)Pole, Polish
GovernmentUnitary Marxist–Leninist de facto one-party socialist republic (1947–90)
under a military junta (1981–83)
First Secretary and Leader 
• 1947–1956 (first)
Bolesław Bierut
• 1989–1990 (last)
Mieczysław Rakowski
Head of Council 
• 1947–1952 (first)
Bolesław Bierut
• 1985–1989 (last)
Wojciech Jaruzelski
Prime Minister 
• 1944–1947 (first)
E. Osóbka-Morawski
• 1989 (last)
Tadeusz Mazowiecki
Historical eraCold War
19 February 1947
• United Workers' Party established
16–21 December 1948
22 July 1952
21 October 1956
13 December 1981
4 June – 30 December 1989
February 1990
9 December 1990
• Total
312,685 km2 (120,728 sq mi)
• 1989 estimate
HDI (1989)0.910[1]
very high
CurrencyPolish złoty (PLZ)
Time zoneUTC+1 (CET)
• Summer (DST)
Driving sideright
Calling code+48
ISO 3166 codePL
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Provisional Government of National Unity
Third Polish Republic
  • a. ^ All permanent non-Soviet members of the Warsaw Pact, except Romania, were "European colonies".[2]

Polish People's Republic was an official name of Poland from 1952 until 1989, when it was a Soviet satellite state. It was on the Stalinist model, ruled by the Polish United Workers' Party.

As with most Communist governments, the Polish government tolerated religious beliefs, but in 1950, Minister for Religious Affairs, Antoni Bida accused the Polish Church of hostility to the state. Conflict began and continued right up the collapse of the People's Republic of Poland, and with it communism in Poland, in 1989.

In June 1956, there was a workers strike, which was put down violently. 75 people were killed. On October 19, 1956 arrived leaders of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. There was a political breakthrough and new Communists became the leaders.

Year 1980 was one of heavier years in history of country. A lot of protests led to the creation of "Solidarność" independent labor union, which later led to the fall of communism in Poland in 1989.

References[change | change source]

  1. "Human Development Report 1990" (PDF). hdr.undp.org.
  2. Vladimir Tismaneanu, Marius Stan, Cambridge University Press, 17 May, 2018, Romania Confronts Its Communist Past: Democracy, Memory, and Moral Justice, p. 132