Ranoidea (superfamily)

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Ranoidea
Temporal range: Cretaceous–recent, 89.3–0 Ma[1]
RanaTemporaria.jpg
Common frog, Rana temporaria
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Amphibia
Order: Anura
Suborder: Neobatrachia
Clade: Ranoidea
Families [2]

The Ranoidea are a superfamily of frogs in the order Anura. These frogs have a fused pectoral girdle bone in their chests, no ribs, and the males hold on to the female with an axillary grip during mating. The tadpoles have a single spiracle on the left side and complex mouthparts. Some species do not have tadpoles, and small frogs grow straight from eggs.[3] Scientists disagree about exactly which frogs should be placed in which family and on exactly where Ranoidea belongs among groups of amphibians. Amphibian scientists often change their minds about exactly which frogs are related to each other and how closely, usually when someone finds new information (Glaw,Vences, 2001).

This superfamily contains seventeen different families, each containing at least 2 species (some contain over 300 different species).[4][5]

Families[change | change source]

These families are copied from Vitt & Caldwell (2014)[4] and van der Meijden (2006).[5]

Ranixalidae[change | change source]

The family of Ranixalidae (Leaping Frogs) has one genus containing 10 different species. They live in central and southern India. They live in leaf litter and in tropical deciduous forests, near streams and can be found between 200 m and 1100 m above sea level.

Mantellidae[change | change source]

The family of Mantellidae (Malagasy Poison Frogs) has 3 different genera with 191 species total. They live in Madagascar and Mayotte Island. They are both terrestrial and tree frogs and live between 800 and 1000 m above sea level.

Rhacophoridae[change | change source]

The family of Rhacophoridae (Afroasian Tree Frogs) has two subfamilies, 14 genera, and a total of 321 species. They live in Sub-Saharan Africa, Madagascar, and South Asia. They are mainly tree frogs.[6]

The phylogenetic tree of Ranoidea and other anurans.[5]

Pyxicephalidae[change | change source]

The family of Pyxicephalidae (African Bullfrogs) has two subfamilies, 13 genera, and 68 total species. They live in Sub-Saharan Africa. The two subfamilies are completely different. Cacosternine frogs are small and slender and live on the ground or in and out of water. Pyxicephaline frogs are large bullfrog-like frogs with thick bodies and fanglike bones on their lower jaws, used to smash their prey.

Petropedetidae[change | change source]

The family of Petropedetidae (African Water Frogs and Goliath Frog) has two genera with a total of 18 different species. They live in Sub-Saharan Africa. This family contains the world's largest living frog, the Conraua goliath.

Ptychadenidae[change | change source]

The family of Ptychadenidae (Grassland Frogs) has 3 genera with a total of 53 different species. They live in sub-Saharan Africa. They live in grasslands and savannas. They have slender bodies with long arms and legs.

Ceratobatrachidae[change | change source]

The family of Ceratobatrachidae (Triangle Frogs) has 5 genera with a total of 84 different species. They live in Malaysia, the Philippines, Borneo, New Guinea, and the Solomon Islands. Most have very angular bodies and are small to medium-sized. They live in the forests.

Brevicipitidae[change | change source]

The family of Brevicipitidae (Rain frogs) has 5 genera with 31 total species. They live in the southeast corner of Africa. They are typically small with round shaped bodies, which become even more round when they are disturbed because they inflate themselves.

References[change | change source]

  1. "Superfamily Ranoidea Rafinesque 1814 (frog)". Paleobiology Database. Fossilworks. Retrieved 18 June 2018.
  2. Cannatella, David; Ford, Linda; Bockstanz, Lori (1995). "Neobatrachia". Tree of Life Web Project. Retrieved 24 September 2012.
  3. Duellman, William E.; Zug, George R. "Anura: Critical appraisal". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 24 September 2012.
  4. 4.0 4.1 Vitt, Laurie J. & Caldwell, Janalee P. (2014). Herpetology: An Introductory Biology of Amphibians and Reptiles (4th ed.). Academic Press. ISBN 9780123869197. OCLC 839312807.
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 van der Meijden, Arie (1 January 2006). "Molecular phylogeny and biogeography of ranoid frogs". Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  6. Ducey, Peter, Dr. (n.d.). Cramer, Craig (ed.). "Glossary". Biology SUNY Cortland. Cortland Herpetology Connection. Cortland, NY: State University of New York.