|Location||Russian Far East, Pacific Ocean|
|Coordinates||45°50' 54°24' N|
|Elevation||1,609 m (5,279 ft)|
|Largest city||Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk,Toyohara (pop. 174,203)|
|Population||673,100 (as of 2005)|
|Density||8.62 /km2 (22.3 /sq mi)|
|Ethnic groups||Russians, Koreans, Nivkhs, Oroks, Evenks and Yakuts.|
Sakhalin (Russian: Сахали́н, IPA: [səxʌˈlʲin]; Japanese: Karafuto (樺太) or Saharin (サハリン); Chinese: 庫頁/库页 Kùyè or 薩哈林/萨哈林 Sàhālín), also known as Saghalien, is a large, long Russian island in the North Pacific, placed between 45°50' and 54°24' N. It is part of Russia territory and is its largest island, administered as part of Sakhalin Oblast. The indigenous peoples of the island are the Sakhalin Ainu, Oroks, and Nivkhs. Most Ainu relocated to Hokkaidō when Japanese were gone from the island in 1949.
Sakhalin is the subject of a whole book by Anton Chekhov (1895), reprinted in many Russian editions of his collected works. It has been translated into English. Of other old books, there is an interesting one by an Englishman, Charles H. Hawes, To the Uttermost East. (N.Y.: Scribner;s, 1904). Now, however, the island is experiencing an oil boom.