General of the Army Muhammad Suharto
|2nd President of Indonesia|
March 12, 1967 – May 21, 1998
|Vice President||Sri Sultan Hamengkubuwono IX (1973) |
Adam Malik (1978)
Umar Wirahadikusumah (1983)
Try Sutrisno (1993)
Bacharuddin Jusuf Habibie (1998)
|Succeeded by||Bacharuddin Jusuf Habibie|
|Born||February 20, 1921|
Kemusuk, Yogyakarta, Dutch East Indies
|Died||January 27, 2008 (aged 86)|
|Cause of death||Congestive heart failure caused by sepsis|
|Political party||Golongan Karya|
|Children||Siti Hardiyanti Rukmana |
Hutomo Mandala Putra
Suharto (February 20, 1921 – January 27, 2008) was an Indonesian military and political leader. He was a military officer in the Indonesian Army. He is better known as the second President of Indonesia. He held the office for a long time, from 1967 to 1998.
Political power[change | change source]
In the early morning of October 1, 1965, a group of soldiers claiming to be supported by the Indonesian Communist Party killed six generals in the army and one assistant because they thought he was a seventh. Many friends and supporters of Suharto claimed they were members of the communist party itself. The people of Indonesia then started killing anybody they thought was communist with Suharto's tacit approvement. Estimates range around half a million. Suharto then seized power from his predecessor, the first president of Indonesia Sukarno. For this, he used some force, but also took some political maneuvers. At the time, there was instability and unrest inside and outside of Indonesia. This helped him come to power. He took three decades to change the regime to work along militarist lines, with a strong central government. His movement was known as "Orde Baru". As he took an anti-communist position which he could defend, several Western governments supported him both in economic and political matters. This was during an era that is known as Cold War. For most of his three-decade rule, Indonesia experienced significant economic growth and industrialization. His rule, however, led to political purges and the deaths of about half a million of suspected Indonesian communists; many of them Chinese-Indonesians. He also made some laws against communist parties and ethnic Chinese.
His New Order administration's authoritarian and increasingly corrupt practices led to much discontent in the 1990s. Suharto's almost unquestioned authority over Indonesian affairs slipped dramatically when the Asian financial crisis lowered Indonesians' standard of living. People inside the military and other institutions no longer supported him. There were some problems inside the country during the early 1990s. Suharto became more and more isolated, in a political way. After mass demonstrations in 1998, Suharto was forced to resign. Suharto had been the face of Indonesia for over 30 years. After retiring, he lived in seclusion. There were people who wanted to try him for genocide. This failed however, because he had a very bad health. His legacy remains hotly debated and contested both in Indonesia and abroad.
Like many Javanese, Suharto has only one name. In contexts where his religion is being discussed he is sometimes called Haji or el-Haj Mohammed Suharto, but this Islamic title is not part of his formal name or generally used. The spelling "Suharto" has been official in Indonesia since 1947 but the older spelling Soeharto is still frequently used.
Death[change | change source]
Suharto was admitted to hospital on January 4; on 23 January, Suharto's health worsened further, as a sepsis infection spread through his body. His family consented to the removal of life support machines if his condition did not improve and he died on 27 January at 1:09 pm. He died at Pertamina Hospital in Jakarta, Indonesia of congestive heart failure. He was taken off life support. He was buried at a family mausoleum near Solo town.
Sukarno, Suharto and Sarwo Edhie Wibowo/Slaughter of Indonesian "Communists"[change | change source]
The balance of power was shifted in favour of anti-Communists in December 1965, when personnel from both the Army Para-commando Regiment and 5th Brawijaya Military Region units arrived in Bali after having carried out killings in Java. Led by Suharto's principal troubleshooter, Sarwo Edhie Wibowo who with Javanese military commanders permitted Balinese squads (led by Anwar Congo, Adi Zulkadry, Safit Pardede) to kill until reined in.  In contrast to Central Java where the Army encouraged people to kill the "Gestapu", Bali's eagerness to kill was so tremendous and spontaneous that, having provided logistic support initially, the Army eventually had to step in to prevent chaos. Sukarno's choice of Bali's provincial governor, Suteja, was recalled from office and accused of preparing a communist uprising, and his relatives were tracked down and killed. A series of killings similar to those in Central and East Java were led by black-shirted PNI youth. For several months, militia death squads went through villages capturing suspects and taking them away. Hundreds of houses belonging to communists and their relatives were burnt down within one week of the reprisal crusade, with occupants being butchered as they ran from their homes. An early estimate suggested that 50,000 people, including women and children, were killed in this operation alone. The population of several Balinese villages were halved in the last months of 1965. All the Chinese shops in the towns of Singaraja and Denpasar were destroyed and many of their owners who were alleged to have financially supported the "Gestapu" killed. Between December 1965 and early 1966, an estimated 80,000 Balinese were killed, roughly 5% of the island's population at the time, and proportionally more than anywhere else in Indonesia. Most of the people killed had little to do with Communist Party or other allegations thrown at them.
Sukarno continued to command loyalty from large sections of the armed forces as well as the general population, and Suharto was careful not to be seen to be seizing power in his own coup. For eighteen months following the quashing of the 30 September Movement, there was a complicated process of political manoeuvres against Sukarno, including student agitation, stacking of parliament, media propaganda and military threats.
In January 1966, university students under the banner of KAMI, begin demonstrations against the Sukarno government voicing demands for the disbandment of PKI and control of hyperinflation. The students received support and protection from the army. Street fights broke out between the students and pro-Sukarno loyalists with the pro-Suharto students prevailing due to army protection.
In February 1966, Sukarno promoted Suharto to lieutenant-general (and to full general in July 1966). The killing of a student demonstrator and Sukarno's order for the disbandment of KAMI in February 1966 further galvanised public opinion against the president. On 11 March 1966, the appearance of unidentified troops around Merdeka Palace during a cabinet meeting (which Suharto had not attended) forced Sukarno to flee to Bogor Palace (60 km away) by helicopter. Three pro-Suharto generals, Major-General Basuki Rahmat, Brigadier-General M Jusuf, and Brigadier-General Amirmachmud went to Bogor to meet Sukarno. There, they persuaded and secured a presidential decree from Sukarno (see Supersemar) that gave Suharto authority to take any action necessary to maintain security.
Using the Supersemar letter, Suharto ordered the banning of PKI the following day and proceeded to purge pro-Sukarno elements from the parliament, the government and military, accusing them of being communist sympathisers. The army arrested 15 cabinet ministers and forced Sukarno to appoint a new cabinet consisting of Suharto supporters. The army arrested pro-Sukarno and pro-communist members of the MPRS (parliament), and Suharto replaced chiefs of the navy, air force, and the police force with his supporters, who then began an extensive purge within each service.
In June 1966, the now-purged parliament passed 24 resolutions including the banning of Marxism–Leninism, ratifying the Supersemar, and stripping Sukarno of his title of President for Life. Against the wishes of Sukarno, the government ended the Konfrontasi with Malaysia and rejoined the United Nations (Sukarno had removed Indonesia from the UN in the previous year). Suharto did not seek Sukarno's outright removal at this MPRS session due to the remaining support for the president among some elements of the armed forces.
By January 1967, Suharto felt confident that he had removed all significant support for Sukarno within the armed forces, and the MPRS decided to hold another session to impeach Sukarno. On 22 February 1967, Sukarno announced he would resign from the presidency, and on 12 March, the MPRS session stripped him of his remaining power and named Suharto acting president. Sukarno was placed under house arrest in Bogor Palace; little more was heard from him, and he died in near seclusion in June 1970.
References[change | change source]
- "Indonesia ex-leader Suharto dies".
- Miguel, Edward; Paul Gertler, David I. Levine (January 2005). "Does Social Capital Promote Industrialization? Evidence from a Rapid Industrializer". Econometrics Softare Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley .
- Robert Cribb (2002). "Unresolved Problems in the Indonesian Killings of 1965–1966". Asian Survey. 42 (4): 550–563.
- Leo Suryadinata (1976). "Indonesian Policies toward the Chinese Minority under the New Order". Asian Survey. 16 (8): 770–787.
- Jakarta, Mark Forbes Herald Correspondent in (28 January 2008). "Strongman Soeharto dies without ever facing justice". The Sydney Morning Herald.
- Watson, Richard C. Paddock and Paul. "Indonesian ex-president Suharto dies". baltimoresun.com. Archived from the original on 2019-05-11. Retrieved 2019-02-11.
- Taylor (2003), p. 359; Vickers (2005), p. 158; Vittachi (1967), p. 143
- Friend (2003), p. 113.
- Taylor (2003), p. 358; Robinson (1995), pp. 299–302; Vittachi (1967), p. 143
- Cite error: The named reference
Vickers_158was used but no text was provided for refs named (see the help page).
- Vittachi (1967), p. 143
- Friend (2003), p. 111; Taylor (2003), p. 358; Vickers (2005), p. 159; Robinson (1995), p. ch. 11.
- Vickers (2005), page 160
- Ricklefs (1991), pages 288 - 290
- Elson 2001, pp. 130–135 harvnb error: no target: CITEREFElson2001 (help)
- Hughes 2002, pp. 267–270 harvnb error: no target: CITEREFHughes2002 (help)
- Hughes 2002, p. 107 harvnb error: no target: CITEREFHughes2002 (help)
- Schwarz (1992), p.25
- McDonald, Hamish (1980). Suharto's Indonesia. Fontana Books. pp. 60. ISBN 0-00-635721-0.
Other websites[change | change source]
| Indonesian Army Chief of Staff
Position abolished by Sukarno after 17 October 1952 incident
Title last held byT.B. Simatupang
As Chief of Staff of the Battle Forces
| Commander-in-Chief of the Indonesian Armed Forces|
| President of Indonesia
12 March 1967 – 21 May 1998
B. J. Habibie
|Party political offices|
|New office|| Chairman of Central Committee of Golkar
| Secretary General of Non-Aligned Movement
Ernesto Samper Pizano
|New office|| Chairperson of ASEAN
| Chairperson of APEC