|Republic of Tanganyika|
Mungu ibariki Afrika
|Capital||Dar es Salaam|
|- 1961–1964||Julius Nyerere|
|- Independence||9 December 1961|
|- Unification with Zanzibar||26 April 1964|
Tanganyika is the mainland part of Tanzania. From 9 December 1961 to 26 April 1964 it was an independent state.
After World War I the parts that are today's Rwanda and Burundi became a League of Nations mandate governed by Belgium. The major part, however, came under British rule and was transferred to Britain under the 1919 Treaty of Versailles. This was confirmed by a League of Nations Mandate in 1922, later becoming a United Nations Trust Territory. Britain changed the name to the Tanganyika Territory.
On 9 December 1961 Tanganyika became independent as a Commonwealth Realm, and on 9 December 1962 it became the Republic of Tanganyika within the Commonwealth of Nations. In 1964, it joined with the islands of Zanzibar to form the United Republic of Tanganyika and Zanzibar, later in the year changed to the United Republic of Tanzania.
Although Tanganyika still exists within Tanzania, the name is no longer used formally for the territory. It is, however, a convenient way to refer to the mainland, which is so different geographically and culturally from Zanzibar. The name Tanganyika is also used to refer to Lake Tanganyika.