Yogyakarta Principles

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Yogyakarta Principles, formally The Yogyakarta Principles on the Application of International Human Rights Law in Relaion to Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity is an international human rights law for the dignity and rights of LGBT people as Principles adopted after an international meeting held by International Commission of Jurists in Yogyakarta of Indonesia from 6 to 9 November 2006. Mary Robinson is one of the 29 signatories of the Principles. Council of Europe esteems these Principles in a document, "Human Rights and Gender Identity".,[1] and furthers its Parliament Assembly[2] These Principles have also been translated into Greek[3] as well as some languages which are not official languages[4] of the United Nations; Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Russian and Spanish.

Refugees from persecution and even honour killings because of sexual orientation or gender identity are also reported with the Principles.[5]

To realize the human rights on sexual orientation and gender identity according to Vienna Declaration and those Principles, the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights has made up a document for the 19th sessions of United Nations Human Rights Council.[6] The United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime also use those Principles for the human treatment of prisoners.[7]

Main contents[change | change source]

The Yogyakarta Principles are consisted by Preamble, 29 Principles and additional recommendations to the United Nations and the international community based on the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and Vienna Declaration as well as at the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. According to the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women they also exist to abolish the stereotyped role on gender. The Yogyakarta Principles affirm blinding international legal standards with which all States must comply.[8]

The Preamble shows the human rights violations because of sexual orientation and gender identity and explains what sexual orientation and gender identity are. The Principles affirm human rights such as; civil, political, economical, social and cultural rights, and affirm the prohibition of all discriminations for those human rights. Principle 3 affirms legal recognition of the sex change of transsexuals without any surgery including sterilization and sexual reassignment surgery because the each person's self-defined gender identity is seen as important for autonomy and dignity of the person.[9] But at the same time the importance of the rights to undergo body modification on sexual reassignment surgery as a "non-discriminatory treatment" and other health cares without discrimination ism emphasised.[10] and must be provided even in prison regarding humanity and person's dignity.[11] And the Principles affirm protection by states against all human trafficking,[12] homelessness[13] and violence, hate crimes, harassment and bullying, and insist the importance of awareness of society that respects the self-esteem of LGBT people against prejudice, and also the right to education with respect of LGBT person's dignity.[14] This Principles also affirm the prevention of any medical abuse including the case of the intersex children and that against any classifications, any gender identity is not disease.[15] They also affirm to promote human rights of any kind and activists for this must be protected by States from any violence, threat or discrimination against them.[16] Principle 29 affirms that violations of human rights including on sexual orientation and gender identity must surely be punished.

Notes[change | change source]

  1. Human Rights and Gender Identity
  2. "Discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation and gender identity", Parliament Assembly of Council of Europe
  3. The full text of the Yogyakarta Principles in Greek
  4. Yogyakarta Principles in Action, Unofficial Translations
  5. UNHCR Guidance Note on refugees claim relating to sexual orientation and gender identity
  6. Discriminatory laws and practices and acts of violence against individuals based on their sexual orientation and gender identity, A/HRC/19/41
  7. Handbook on prisoners with special needs, p. 110
  8. Introduction to the Yogyakarta Principles
  9. Principle 3. Right to recognition before the law
  10. Principle 17. Right to the Hightest Attainable Standard of Health
  11. Principle 9. Right to Treatment with Humanity while in Detention
  12. Principle 11. Right to Protection from all forms of exploitation, sale and trafficking of human being
  13. Principle 15. Right to Adequate Housing
  14. Principle 16. Right to Education
  15. Principle 18. Protection from Medical Abuses
  16. Principle 27. Right to Promote Human Rights

Other pages[change | change source]

Other website[change | change source]