|In Skagit Valley, United States|
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|Bald Eagle range
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The Bald Eagle (Latin name: Haliaeetus leucocephalus) is a bird of prey that lives in North America. It is the national bird of the United States of America. The Bald Eagle is a kind of sea eagle (it is sometimes called by this name). It can be found in most of Canada, all of the United States, and the northern part of Mexico. It lives near big areas of water where there is a lot of food to eat and old trees to nest in. It is called bald because of the white head and neck, making it look bald.
Description[change | edit source]
The Bald Eagle is a large bird. It is usually as tall as 70 to 102 centimetres (28 to 40 in) and its wingspans are 2.44 metres (96 in). Female eagles are about 25 percent larger than males. Adult females weigh 5.8 kilograms (13 lb), while males weigh 4.1 kilograms (9.0 lb). The adult Bald Eagle has a brown body, and its head and tail are white. It also has golden feet with large talons, and a hooked beak. The males and the females do not have different colors on their wings.
Before Bald Eagles become adults, their wings are brown, and they are usually speckled with white dots until the fifth year. The differences between Bald Eagles and Golden Eagles are that Bald Eagles have a larger head with a bigger beak, and their legs do not have feathers.
The size of the bird depends on where it lives. The smallest birds are in Florida, where an adult male is only about 2.3 kilograms (5.1 lb). The largest Bald Eagles are in Alaska, where large females may be as much as 7.5 kilograms (17 lb).
Name[change | edit source]
This sea eagle gets both its common and scientific names from its head. Bald in the English name is from the word piebald, which means, "one with a white head". The scientific name is from Haliaeetus, which is Latin for "sea eagle".
The Bald Eagle was one of the many species written in Carolus Linnaeus's 18th century book Systema Naturae. Linnaeus was a Swedish botanist, physician and zoologist who made the binomial nomenclature system.
- H. l. leucocephalus (named by Linnaeus, 1766) is one of the subspecies. It is found in the southern United States and Baja California.
- H. l. washingtoniensis (named by Audubon, 1827) is the northern subspecies. It is larger than the southern kind, leucocephalus. It is found in the northern United States, Canada, and Alaska. The Bald Eagle looks a lot like the Eurasian White-tailed Eagle. These species both have white heads of the same size, although the White-tailed Eagle has a more pale feather color. The pair probably parted into two at the North Pacific. The White-tailed Eagle is in Eurasia, and the Bald Eagle is in North America.
Habitat[change | edit source]
The Bald Eagle needs old trees with hard wood to live, sleep, and make a nest on. The tree must have an opening, and be safe from prey. However, the height or kind of tree is not as important as having a lake or sea close to the nest.
The Bald Eagle does not like to be near humans, and so they are found mostly in places free of humans. Sometimes, Bald Eagles will go to large places with trees that are inside big cities, such as in Oregon. Even though they are very sensitive to humans, a family of Bald Eagles recently moved into Harlem, New York.
The Bald Eagle's natural home is in most of North America, including most of Canada, all of the United States, and northern Mexico.
Behavior[change | edit source]
The Bald Eagle is very fast when it flies. It reaches the speeds of 56–70 kilometers per hour (35–43 mph) when gliding and flapping. However, when it is carrying fish, it flies about 48 kilometers each hour. Its dive speed is 120–160 kilometers per hour (75–99 mph), though it does not dive a lot. It usually migrates, depending on the place that it is living in. If its territory has water near by, it will remain there all year, but if the water freezes in the winter, it must migrate to the south or to the coast to find something to eat.
Diet[change | edit source]
Sometimes, eagles may eat a lot of carrion, especially in winter. They will also scavenge dead bodies up to the size of whales. However, eagles eat more large dead fish than whales. They also sometimes eat the leftover food from campsites or garbage dumps. The mammals they eat include rabbits, hares, raccoons, muskrats, beavers, and deer fawns. Some of the birds they eat include grebes, ducks, gulls, and geese. Reptiles, amphibians and crustaceans (especially crabs) are also eaten.
To hunt fish the eagle swoops down over the water and snatches the fish out of the water with its talons. They eat by holding the fish in one claw and tearing the flesh with the other. Eagles have special things on their toes called spiricules that help them hold the fish more easily. Bald Eagles have powerful talons. They have been recorded flying with a 7 kg fawn. Sometimes, when the fish is too heavy, the eagle will be dragged into the water with it. Sometimes, eagles swim back to the shore and live, but sometimes they may drown or die because of hypothermia (a condition when one’s body gets so cold the body temperature drops below normal). Other times, Bald Eagles will steal fish and other kinds of food away from other animals. Healthy adult Bald Eagles are not eaten anywhere in the wild. This makes them thought as one of the top animals of the food chain.
Reproduction[change | edit source]
Bald Eagles become adults when they are four or five years old. When they are old enough to mate, they usually come back to the place where they were born. It is thought that Bald Eagles mate for life. However, if one of the pair dies or disappears, the other will choose a new mate. A pair which can not get a chick after trying for a long time, may split up and look for new mates. When Bald Eagles court, they call and show their flying skills. When they do so, two mates may fly high, and then lock their talons together, and fall, parting again right before hitting the ground. The nest of the Bald Eagle is larger than any other nest in North America. This is because it is used again and again, and every year more is added to the nest until it may soon become as large as 4 meters (13 ft) deep, 2.5 meters (8.2 ft) across and weigh 1 tonne. One nest in Florida was found to be 6.1 meters (20 ft) deep, 2.9 meters (9.5 ft) across, and to weigh 3 short tons (2.7 t). The nest is built out of branches, usually in large trees near water. If there are no trees, the Bald Eagle will make its nest on the ground. Eagles have between one and three eggs per year. Both the male and female take turns incubating the eggs. The other parent will hunt for food or look for more to add onto the nest. The eggs are about 73 millimeters (2.9 in) long.
Relationship with humans[change | edit source]
Fall and rise of population[change | edit source]
Once easily seen on the continental United States, the Bald Eagle was close to becoming extinct because of the use of the pesticide DDT. The DDT destroyed an adult bird's calcium, and it would become unable to lay more healthy eggs. Female eagles laid eggs that were too weak to withstand the weight of its parents. In the early 1700s, the number of bald eagles were 300,000–500,000, but by the 1950s there were only 412 nesting pairs in the United States. Other things that stopped Bald Eagles from producing well was the loss of habitat and illegal hunting of Bald Eagles. Also, oil and lead were other big reasons why Bald Eagles began to die out.
The species was first protected in the United States and Canada by the 1918 Migratory Bird Treaty. The 1940 Bald Eagle Protection Act in the United States also tried to stop the killing of the Bald Eagle and the Golden Eagle. The Bald Eagle was an endangered species in 1967, and the penalties for people who killed the species grew more and more. Also, in 1972, DDT was banned in the United States. DDT was completely banned in Canada in 1989.
To keep Bald Eagles in captivity, the workers had to be experienced in caring for eagles. The Bald Eagle can live a long time in captivity if well cared for, but does not mate well, even under the best care.
The national bird of the United States[change | edit source]
The Bald Eagle is the national bird of the United States. It appears on most of its seals, including the Seal of the President of the United States. The Continental Congress made the design for the Great Seal of the United States with a Bald Eagle holding thirteen arrows and an olive branch with thirteen leaves in its talons on June 20, 1782.
The Bald Eagle can be found on both national seals and on the back of several coins (including the quarter dollar coin until 1999). Between 1916 and 1945, the Flag of the President of the United States showed an eagle facing to its left.
There is a popular legend that Benjamin Franklin once supported the Wild Turkey as a symbol of the United States instead of the Bald Eagle. However, there is no evidence that this is true. The legend comes from the letter Franklin wrote to his daughter in 1784 from Paris. However, this letter was about the Society of the Cincinnati, and it did not say anything about the Bald Eagle or the Wild Turkey.
In Native American culture[change | edit source]
The Bald Eagle is a holy bird in some North American cultures. Its feathers are thought to be special. They are used very much in spiritual customs among the Native Americans. Eagles are thought as messengers between gods and humans. Eagle feathers are often used in traditional things, especially in fans. The Lakota people, for instance, give an eagle feather as a symbol of honor to a person who achieves a task. In modern times, it may be given on an event such as a graduation from college. The Pawnee people thought eagles as symbols of nature and fertility. This is because their nests are built high off the ground, and because they protect their young very bravely. The Choctaw explained that the Bald Eagle, who can see the sun more directly, is a symbol of peace.
During the Sun Dance, which is danced by a lot of Native American tribes, the eagle is included in many different ways. A whistle made from the wing bone of an eagle is used during the dance. Also during the dance, a medicine man may direct his fan, which is made of eagle feathers, to people who need healing. The fan is then held up toward the sky, so that the eagle may send all the sick prayers to the god.
However, Native American tribes cannot use Bald or Golden Eagle feathers for their religious or spiritual use anymore. This is because of a law called the eagle feather law. The eagle feather law usually defends Native Americans by providing many exceptions to wildlife laws, but it presently does not yet allow Native American tribes to use them yet. This made the Native American groups angry because they insisted that it was stopping their ability to use their religion freely.
References[change | edit source]
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- Linnaeus, Carolus (1766). Systema naturae per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio duodecima, reformata.. Holmiae. (Laurentii Salvii)..
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- "Wildlife Species: Haliaeetus leucocephalus". USDA Forest Service. http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/animals/bird/hale/all.html. Retrieved 2007-06-21.
- "Ross Island FAQ". Willamette Riverkeeper website. Willamette Riverkeeper. 2009. http://www.willamette-riverkeeper.org/documents/RossIslandFactSheet.pdf. Retrieved 2009-11-07.
- Carlson, Jen. "Bald Eagle Spotted Near Fairway". Gothamist. http://gothamist.com/2010/02/05/bald_eagle_1.php. Retrieved 2010-03-20.
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- Terres, J. K. (1980). The Audubon Society Encyclopedia of North American Birds. New York, NY: Knopf. pp. 644–647. ISBN 0394466519.
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- EPA press release. "DDT Ban Takes Effect". United States Environmental Protection Agency. http://www.epa.gov/history/topics/ddt/01.htm. Retrieved 2007-08-22.
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- 4 U.S.C. § 41; The Bald Eagle on the Great Seal.
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- The official description was in text only; no diagram was included. Text of the Act.
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- O'Brien, Greg (2005). "Power Derived from the Outside World". Choctaws in a Revolutionary Age, 1750-1830. University of Nebraska Press. p. 58. ISBN 0803286228.
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- DeMeo, Antonia M. (1995). "Access to Eagles and Eagle Parts: Environmental Protection v. Native American Free Exercise of Religion". Hastings Constitutional Law Quarterly 22 (3): 771–813. http://www.animallaw.info/articles/ar22hstclq771.htm. Retrieved 2007-08-22.
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Further reading[change | edit source]
- Beans, Bruce E. (1996). Eagle's Plume: The Struggle to Preserve the Life and Haunts of America's Bald Eagle. New York, NY: Scribner. ISBN 0684806967. OCLC 35029744.
- Gerrard, Jonathan M.; Bortolotti, Gary R. (1988). The Bald Eagle: Haunts and Habits of a Wilderness Monarch. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press. ISBN 0874744512. OCLC 16801779.
- Isaacson, Philip M. (1975). The American Eagle (1st ed.). Boston, MA: New York Graphic Society. ISBN 0821206125. OCLC 1366058.
- Knight, Richard L.; Gutzwiller, Kevin J. (1995). Wildlife and Recreationists: Coexistence through Management and Research. Washington, DC: Island Press. ISBN 1559632577. OCLC 30893485.
- Laycock, George (1973). Autumn of the Eagle. New York. NY: Scribner. ISBN 0684134136. OCLC 754345.
- Petersen, Shannon (2002). Acting for Endangered Species: The Statutory Ark. Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas. ISBN 070061172X. OCLC 48477567.
- Spencer, Donald A. (1976). Wintering of the Migrant Bald Eagle in the Lower 48 States. Washington, DC: National Agricultural Chemicals Association. OCLC 2985418.
- Stalmaster, Mark V. (1987). The Bald Eagle. New York, NY: Universe Books. ISBN 0876634919. OCLC 15014825.
- Temple, Stanley A. (1978). Endangered Birds: Management Techniques for Preserving Threatened Species. Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Press. ISBN 0299075206. OCLC 3750666.
Identification[change | edit source]
- Grant, Peter J. (1988) The Co. Kerry Bald Eagle Twitching 1(12): 379-80 – describes plumage differences between Bald Eagle and White-tailed Eagle in juveniles
Other websites[change | edit source]
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Haliaeetus leucocephalus|
|Wikispecies has information on: Bald Eagle.|
- "National Eagle Center". nationaleaglecenter.org. http://www.nationaleaglecenter.org/. Retrieved 2 June 2010.
- "American Bald Eagle Foundation". baldeagles.org. http://www.baldeagles.org/. Retrieved 2 June 2010.
- "American Bald Eagle Information". baldeagleinfo.com. http://baldeagleinfo.com/. Retrieved 2 June 2010.
- "Bald Eagle bird sound". flmnh.ufl.edu. http://www.flmnh.ufl.edu/wwwsounds/birds/hardy3sh.wav. Retrieved 2 June 2010.
- "Bald Eagle - South Dakota Birds". sdakotabirds.com. http://sdakotabirds.com/species/bald_eagle_info.htm. Retrieved 2 June 2010.
- "Ventana Wildlife Society - Bald Eagle Restoration". ventanaws.org. http://www.ventanaws.org/species_eagles/. Retrieved 2 June 2010.