Big Bang

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The Big Bang model is that the universe begun in an extremely dense and hot condition and has expanded. The theory suggests, and measurements show, that the universe is still expanding today.[1]

The Big Bang is the name of a scientific theory about how the universe started, and then made the groups of stars (called galaxies) we see today.

In the Big Bang theory, the universe began as very hot, small, and dense, with no stars, atoms, form, or structure (called a "singularity"). Then about 14 billion years ago,[1] space expanded very quickly (thus the name "Big Bang"), resulting in the formation of atoms, which eventually led to the creation of stars and galaxies. The universe is still expanding today, but getting colder as well.

As a whole, space is growing and the temperature is falling as time passes. Cosmology is the name given to how the universe began and how it has developed. Scientists that study cosmology agree the Big Bang theory matches what they have observed so far.[1]

Fred Hoyle called the theory the "Big Bang" on his radio show. He did not believe the Big Bang was correct. Scientists who did not agree with him thought the name was funny and decided to use it. Since then, Fred Hoyle's reasons for not agreeing with the theory have been proven wrong.[2]

Scientists base the Big Bang theory on many different observations. The most important is the redshift of very far away galaxies. Redshift is the Doppler Effect occurring in light. When an object moves away from earth, it looks reddish because the movement stretches the wavelength. The reddish color occurs because red is the lowest wavelength on the visible spectrum. The more redshift there is, the faster the object is moving away. By measuring the redshift, scientists proved that the universe is expanding and can even work out how fast the object is moving. With precise observation and measurements, scientists believe that universe was a singularity approximately 13.8 billion years ago. Because most things become colder as they expand, the universe is assumed to have been very hot when it started.[3]

Other observations that support the Big Bang theory are the amounts of chemical elements in the universe. Amounts of hydrogen, helium, and lithium seem to agree with the theory of the Big Bang. Scientists also have found "cosmic microwaves background radiation". This radiation is known as radio waves, and they are everywhere in the universe. Even so, it is now very weak and cold, but a long time ago it was very strong and very hot.[1]

The Big Bang might also have been the beginning of time. If the Big Bang was the beginning of time, then there was no universe before the Big Bang, since there was no concept of "before" without time. Other ideas state that the Big Bang was not the beginning of time 13.8 billion years ago. Instead, some believe that there was a different universe before and it may have been very different from the one we know today.[3]

The Big Bang idea is based on science. Some religious groups reject the Big Bang theory on grounds that it conflicts with their teachings.[4] The Big Bang theory is not a religious teaching. It is based on observations of the universe, and is an attempt at explaining them without religious undertones. Georges Lemaitre, who originally came up with this theory, was a Catholic priest, and there are many religious groups who do accept the Big Bang theory, as it doesn't (in itself) conflict with being religious.

Graphical timeline of the universe[change | change source]

A great deal happened in the first second of the universe's life:

Cosmic microwave background radiation Timeline of the Big Bang#Matter domination: 70,000 years Timeline of the Big Bang#Recombination: 240,000-310,000 years Big Bang nucleosynthesis Inflationary epoch Planck time Timeline of the Big Bang#Dark Ages Photon epoch Lepton epoch Hadron epoch Quark epoch Electroweak epoch Grand unification epoch The Five Ages of the Universe Reionization Graphical timeline of the Stelliferous Era Big Bang Planck epoch

References[change | change source]

More reading[change | change source]

  • Singh, Simon (2005). Big Bang: the most important scientific discovery of all time and why you need to know about it. Harper Perennial. ISBN 9780007152520.