List of Emperors of Japan

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The List of Emperors of Japan presents the traditional order of succession.[1] Records of the reigns of the Emperors of Japan were compiled according to the traditional Japanese calendar,[2] and these traditional dates have been converted into the Western calendar format.

TABLE: List of Emperors of Japan
# Reign Posthumous name Personal name (imina) Notes
Legendary Japan
    1   660 — 585BC Emperor Jimmu Kamuyamato Iwarebiko   presumed legendary[3]
    2   581 — 549BC Emperor Suizei Kamu Nunagawamimi no Mikoto   presumed legendary;[4] 3rd son of Jimmu[5]
    3   549 — 511BC Emperor Annei Shikitsuhiko Tamademi no Mikoto   presumed legendary;[6] son and heir of Suizei[5]
    4   510 — 476BC Emperor Itoku Oho Yamatohiko Sukitomo no Mikoto   presumed legendary;[6] 2nd son of Anei[5]
    5   475 — 393BC Emperor Kōshō Mimatsuhiko Kaesine no Mikoto   presumed legendary;[7] son and heir of Itoku[5]
    6   392 — 291BC Emperor Kōan Oho Yamato Tarasihiko Kuniosi Hito no Mikoto   presumed legendary;[8] 2nd son of Kōshō[5]
    7   290 — 215BC Emperor Kōrei Oho Yamato Nekohiko Futoni no Mikoto   presumed legendary [9] son and heir of Kōan[5]
    8   214 — 158BC Emperor Kōgen Oho Yamato Nekohiko Kuni Kuru no Mikoto   presumed legendary;[10] son and heir of Kōrei[5]
    9   157 — 98BC Emperor Kaika Waka Yamato Nekohiko Oho Bibino no Mikoto   presumed legendary;[11] 2nd son of Kōgen[5]
   10     97 — 30BC Emperor Sujin Mimaki Irihiko Inie no Mikoto   presumed legendary;[12] 2nd son of Kaika[5]
   11  29BC — 70 Emperor Suinin Ikume Irihiko Isatsi no Mikoto   presumed legendary;[13] 3rd son of Sujin[5]
   12     71 — 130 Emperor Keikō Oho Tarasihiko Osirowake no Mikoto   presumed legendary;[14] 3rd son of Suinin; Yamato Takero no Mikoto is son of Keikō[5]
   13    131 — 191 Emperor Seimu Waka Tarasihiko   presumed legendary;[15]
   14    192 — 200 Emperor Chūai Tarasi Nakatsuhiko no Mikoto   presumed legendary;[16] 2nd son of Yamato Takeru no Mikoto[5]
   201 — 269 Empress Jingū Okinaga Tarashihime no Mikoto   presumed legendary[17]
  interregnum
Kofun period
   15    270 — 310 Emperor Ōjin Fondano Miko no Mikoto / Otomowake no Mikoto / Humudawake no Mikoto   proto-historical
  suggested dates;[18] 4th son of Chūai[5]
   16    313 — 399 Emperor Nintoku Oho Sazaki no Mikoto   suggested dates[19]
   17    400 — 405 Emperor Richū Isaho Wake no Mikoto   suggested dates[20]
   18    406 — 410 Emperor Hanzei Misu wa Wake no Mikoto   suggested dates[21]
   19    411 — 453 Emperor Ingyō Wo Asazuma Wakugo no Sukune   suggested dates[22]
   20    453 — 456 Emperor Ankō Anaho — Mikoto   suggested dates[23]
   21    456 — 479 Emperor Yūryaku Oho Hatsuneno no Mikoto   suggested dates[24]
   22    480 — 484 Emperor Seinei Siraga Takehiro Kuni Osi Wakai Yamato Neko no Mikoto   suggested dates[25]
   23    485 — 487 Emperor Kenzō Ohoke no Mikoto   suggested dates[26]
   24    488 — 498 Emperor Ninken Ohosi(Ohosu) no Mikoto/ Simano Iratsuko   suggested dates[27]
   25    498 — 506 Emperor Buretsu Wohatsuse Wakasazaki   suggested dates[28]
   26    507 — 531 Emperor Keitai Ōto/Hikofuto (Hikofuto no Mikoto/Ōdo no Sumera Mikoto)   suggested dates;[29] 5th generation descendant of Ōjin[5]
   27    531 — 535 Emperor Ankan Hirokuni Oshitake Kanahi no Mikoto   suggested dates[30]
   28    535 — 539 Emperor Senka Takeo Hirokuni Oshitate no Mikoto   suggested dates[31]
Asuka period
   29    539 — 571 Emperor Kimmei Amekuni Oshiharuki Hironiwa no Sumera Mikoto   traditional dates;[32] 3rd son of Keitai[5]
   30    572585 Emperor Bidatsu Osada no Nunakura no Futotamashiki no Mikoto   traditional dates;[33] 2nd son of Kimmei[5]
   31    585587 Emperor Yōmei Ooe/Tachibana no Toyohi no Sumera Mikoto   traditional dates[34]
   32    587592 Emperor Sushun Hatsusebe no (Wakasasagi) Mikoto   traditional dates[35]
   33    592628 Empress Suiko Nukatabe/Toyomike Kashikiyahime   traditional dates[36]
   34    629641 Emperor Jomei Tamura (Oki Nagatarashihi Hironuka no Sumera Mikoto)   traditional dates;[37] grandson of Bidatsu[5]
   35    642645 Empress Kōgyoku Takara (Ame Toyotakaraikashi Hitarashi Hime no Sumera Mikoto)   traditional dates;
  reigned twice[38]
   36    645654 Emperor Kōtoku Karu (Ame Yorozu Toyohi no Sumera Mikoto)   traditional dates[39]
   37    655661 Empress Saimei -- See 35 above—traditional dates[40]
   38    661672 Emperor Tenji Katsuragi/Nakano-ooe (Ame Mikoto Hirakasuwake no Mikoto/Amatsu Mikoto Sakiwake no Mikoto)   traditional dates;[41] 1st son of Jomei[5]
   39    672 Emperor Kōbun Ōtomo   traditional dates[42]
   40    672686 Emperor Temmu Ōama/Ohoshiama/Ōsama (Ame no Nunahara Oki no Mahito no Sumera Mikoto)   traditional dates[43]
   41    686697 Empress Jitō Unonosarara (Takama no Harahiro no Hime no Sumera Mikoto)   traditional dates[44]
   42    697707 Emperor Mommu Karu (Ame no Mamune Toyoohoji no Sumera Mikoto)   traditional dates[45]
   43    707715 Empress Gemmei Ahe (Yamatoneko Amatsu Mishiro Toyokuni Narihime no Sumera Mikoto)   traditional dates[46]
Nara period
   44    715724 Empress Genshō Hidaka/Niinomi (Yamatoneko Takamizu Kiyotarashi Hime no Sumera Mikoto)   traditional dates[47]
   45    724749 Emperor Shōmu Obito (Ameshirushi Kunioshiharuki Toyosakurahiko no Sumera Mikoto)   traditional dates[5][48]
   46    749758 Empress Kōken Abe (Yamatoneko no Sumera Mikoto)   traditional dates
  reigned twice [49]
   47    758764 Emperor Junnin Ōi   traditional dates[5][50]
   48    764770 Empress Shōtoku -- See 46 above --   traditional dates[51]
   49    770781 Emperor Kōnin Shirakabe (Amemune Takatsugi no Mikoto)   traditional dates;[52] grandson of Tenji[5]
Heian period
   50    781806 Emperor Kammu Yamabe (Yamatoneko Amatsu Hitsugi Iyaderi no Mikoto)   traditional dates;[53] son of Kōnin[5]
   51    806809 Emperor Heizei Ate (Yamatoneko Ameoshikuni Takahiko no Mikoto)   traditional dates[54]
   52    809823 Emperor Saga Kamino   traditional dates;[55] 2nd son of Kammu[5]
   53    823833 Emperor Junna Ōtomo   traditional dates[56]
   54    833850 Emperor Ninmyō Masara   traditional dates;[57] 2nd son of Saga[5]
   55    850858 Emperor Montoku Michiyasu   traditional dates[58]
   56    858876 Emperor Seiwa Korehito   traditional dates[59]
   57    876884 Emperor Yōzei Sadaakira   traditional dates[60]
   58    884887 Emperor Kōkō Tokiyasu   traditional dates;[61] 3rd son of Ninmyō[5]
   59    887897 Emperor Uda Sadami   traditional dates;[62] 3rd son of Kōkō[5]
   60    897930 Emperor Daigo Atsuhito   traditional dates;[63] 1st son of Uda[5]
   61    930946 Emperor Suzaku Yutaakira   traditional dates [64]
   62    946967 Emperor Murakami Nariakira   traditional dates [65] 14th son of Daigo[5]
   63    967969 Emperor Reizei Norihira   traditional dates [66]
   64    969984 Emperor En'yū Morihira   traditional dates [67] 5th son of Murakami[5]
   65    984986 Emperor Kazan Morosada   traditional dates [68]
   66    9861011 Emperor Ichijō Yasuhito/Kanehito   traditional dates [69] 1st son of En'yū[5]
   67  10111016 Emperor Sanjō Okisada/Iyasada   traditional dates [70]
   68  10161036 Emperor Go-Ichijō Atsuhira   traditional dates [71]
   69  10361045 Emperor Go-Suzaku Atsunaga/Atsuyoshi   traditional dates [72] 3rd son of Ichijō[5]
   70  10451068 Emperor Go-Reizei Chikahito   traditional dates [73]
   71  10681073 Emperor Go-Sanjō Takahito   traditional dates [74] 2nd son of Go-Suzaku[5]
   72  10731086 Emperor Shirakawa Sadahito   traditional dates [75] 1st son of Go-Sanjō[5]
   73  10871107 Emperor Horikawa Taruhito   traditional dates [76] 2nd son of Shirakawa[5]
   74  11071123 Emperor Toba Munehito   traditional dates [77]
   75  11231142 Emperor Sutoku Akihito   traditional dates [78]
   76  11421155 Emperor Konoe Narihito   traditional dates [79]
   77  11551158 Emperor Go-Shirakawa Masahito   traditional dates [80]
   78  11581165 Emperor Nijō Morihito   traditional dates [81]
   79  11651168 Emperor Rokujō Yorihito   traditional dates [82]
   80  11681180 Emperor Takakura Norihito   traditional dates [82]
   81  11801185 Emperor Antoku Tokihito   traditional dates [83]
   82  11831198 Emperor Go-Toba Takahira   traditional dates [84]
Kamakura period
   83  11981210 Emperor Tsuchimikado Tamehito   traditional dates [85]
   84  12101221 Emperor Juntoku Morihira/Morinari   traditional dates [86]
   85  1221 Emperor Chūkyō Kanehira/Kanenari   traditional dates [87]
   86  12211232 Emperor Go-Horikawa Yutahito   traditional dates [88]
   87  12321242 Emperor Shijō Mitsuhito/Hidehito   traditional dates [89]
   88  12421246 Emperor Go-Saga Kunihito   traditional dates [90]
   89  12461260 Emperor Go-Fukakusa Hisahito   traditional dates [91]
   90  12601274 Emperor Kameyama Tsunehito   traditional dates [92]
   91  12741287 Emperor Go-Uda Yohito   traditional dates [93]
   92  12871298 Emperor Fushimi Hirohito   traditional dates [94]
   93  12981301 Emperor Go-Fushimi Tanehito   traditional dates [95]
   94  13011308 Emperor Go-Nijō Kuniharu   traditional dates [96]
   95  13081318 Emperor Hanazono Tomihito   traditional dates [97]
   96  13181339 Emperor Go-Daigo Takaharu   traditional dates [98]
Nanboku-chō periodNorthern court
13311333 Emperor Kōgon Kazuhito   traditional dates [99]
13361348 Emperor Kōmyō Yutahito   traditional dates [100]
13481351 Emperor Sukō Okihito   traditional dates [101]
13511352 Interregnum
13521371 Emperor Go-Kōgon Iyahito   traditional dates [102]
13711382 Emperor Go-En'yū Ohito   traditional dates [103]
13821392 Emperor Go-Komatsu -- See 100 below --   traditional dates [104]
Nanboku-chō periodSouthern court
   97  13391368 Emperor Go-Murakami Norinaga/Noriyoshi   traditional dates [105]
   98  13681383 Emperor Chōkei Yutanari   traditional dates [106]
   99  13831392 Emperor Go-Kameyama Hironari   traditional dates [107]
Muromachi period
 100  13921412 Emperor Go-Komatsu Motohito   traditional dates [108]
 101  14121428 Emperor Shōkō Mihito   traditional dates [109]
 102  14281464 Emperor Go-Hanazono Hikohito   traditional dates [110]
 103  14641500 Emperor Go-Tsuchimikado Fusahito   traditional dates [111]
 104  15001526 Emperor Go-Kashiwabara Katsuhito   traditional dates [112]
 105  15261557 Emperor Go-Nara Tomohito   traditional dates [113]
 106  15571586 Emperor Ōgimachi Michihito   traditional dates [114]
 107  15861611 Emperor Go-Yōzei Kazuhito/Katahito   traditional dates [115]
Edo period
 108  16111629 Emperor Go-Mizunoo Kotohito   traditional dates [116]
 109  16291643 Empress Meishō Okiko   traditional dates [117]
 110  16431654 Emperor Go-Kōmyō Tsuguhito   traditional dates [118]
 111  16551663 Emperor Go-Sai Nagahito   traditional dates [119]
 112  16631687 Emperor Reigen Satohito   traditional dates [120]
 113  16871709 Emperor Higashiyama Asahito   traditional dates [121]
 114  17091735 Emperor Nakamikado Yasuhito   traditional dates [122]
 115  17351747 Emperor Sakuramachi Teruhito   traditional dates [123]
 116  17471762 Emperor Momozono Toohito   traditional dates [124]
 117  17621771 Empress Go-Sakuramachi Toshiko   traditional dates [125]
 118  17711779 Emperor Go-Momozono Hidehito   traditional dates [126]
 119  17801817 Emperor Kōkaku Tomohito  [127]
 120  18171846 Emperor Ninkō Ayahito  [128]
 121  18461867 Emperor Kōmei Osahito
Modern Japan
 122  18671912 Emperor Meiji Mutsuhito   constitutional monarch
 123  19121926 Emperor Taishō Yoshihito   constitutional monarch
 124  19261989 Emperor Shōwa Hirohito   constitutional monarch
 125  1989 — present the present emperor, also known as Emperor Akihito Akihito   constitutional monarch

Related pages[change | edit source]

References[change | edit source]

The chrysanthemum symbol of the Japanese emperor and his family.
  1. Nussbaum, Louis Frédéric. (2005). "Traditional Order of Tennō" in Japan Encyclopedia, p. 962.
  2. Nussbaum, "Nengō" in Japan Encyclopedia, p. 704.
  3. Brown, Delmer M. (1979). Gukanshō, p. 249; Varley, H. Paul. (1980). Jinnō Shōtōki, pp. 84-88; Titsingh, Isaac. (1834). Annales des empereurs du japon, pp. 1-3.
  4. Brown, pp. 250-251; Varley, pp.88-89; Titisingh, pp. 3-4.
  5. 5.00 5.01 5.02 5.03 5.04 5.05 5.06 5.07 5.08 5.09 5.10 5.11 5.12 5.13 5.14 5.15 5.16 5.17 5.18 5.19 5.20 5.21 5.22 5.23 5.24 5.25 5.26 5.27 5.28 5.29 5.30 5.31 5.32 5.33 Brown, p. 248.
  6. 6.0 6.1 Brown, p. 251; Varley, p. 89; Titsingh, p. 4.
  7. Brown, p. 251; Varley, p. 90; Titsingh, pp. 4-5.
  8. Brown, pp. 251-252; Varley, p. 90; Titsingh, p. 5.
  9. Brown, p. 252; Varley, pp. 90-92; Titsingh, pp. 5-6.
  10. Brown, p. 252; Varley, pp. 92-93; Titsingh, p. 6.
  11. Brown, p. 252; Varley, p. 93; Titsingh, pp. 6-7.
  12. Brown, p. 253; Varley, pp. 93-95; Titsingh, pp. 7-9.
  13. Brown, pp. 253-254; Varley, pp. 95-96; Titsingh, pp. 9-10.
  14. Brown, p. 254; Varley, pp. 96-99; Titsingh, pp. 11-14.
  15. Brown, p. 254; Varley, pp. 99-100; Titsingh, pp. 14-15.
  16. Brown, pp. 254-255 Varley, pp. 100-101; Titsingh, p. 15.
  17. Brown, p. 255; Varley, pp. 101-103; Titsingh, pp. 16-19.
  18. Brown, p. 255-256; Varley, pp. 17, 103-110; Titsingh, pp. 19-21.
  19. Brown, p. 256-257; Varley, pp. 110-111; Titsingh, pp. 22-24.
  20. Brown, p. 257; Varley, p. 111; Titsingh, pp. 24-25.
  21. Brown, p. 257; Varley, p. 112; Titsingh, p. 25.
  22. Brown, pp. 258-259; Varley, p. 112; Titsingh, p. 26.
  23. Brown, p. 258; Varley, p. 113; Titsingh, p. 26.
  24. Brown, p. 258; Varley, pp. 113-115; Titsingh, pp. 27-28.
  25. Brown, pp. 258-259; Varley, pp. 115-116; Titsingh, pp. 28-29.
  26. Brown, p. 259; Varley, p. 116; Titsingh, pp. 29-30.
  27. Brown, pp. 259-260; Varley, p. 117; Titsingh, p. 30.
  28. Brown, p. 260; Varley, pp. 117-118; Titsingh, p. 31.
  29. Brown, pp. 260-261; Varley, pp. 17-18, 119-120; Titsingh, p. 31-32.
  30. Brown, p. 261; Varley, pp. 120-121; Brown, p. 261; Titsingh, p. 33.
  31. Brown, p. 261; Varley, p. 121; Titsingh, p. 33-34.
  32. Brown, pp. 261-262; Varley, pp. 123-124; Titsingh, p. 34-36.
  33. Brown, pp. 262-263; Varley, pp. 124-125; Titsingh, p. 36-37.
  34. Brown, p. 263; Varley, pp. 125-126; Titsingh, p. 37-38.
  35. Brown, p. 263; Varley, p. 126; Titsingh, p. 38-39.
  36. Brown, pp. 263-264; Varley, pp. 126-129; Titsingh, pp. 39-42.
  37. Brown, pp. 264-265; Varley, pp. 129-130; Titsingh, pp. 42-43.
  38. Brown, pp. 265-256; Varley, pp. 130-132; Titsingh, pp. 43-47.
  39. Brown, pp. 266-267; Varley, pp. 132-133; Titsingh, pp. 47-50.
  40. Brown, p. 267; Varley, pp. 133-134; Titsingh, pp. 50-52.
  41. Brown, p. 268; Varley, p. 135; Titsingh, pp. 52-56.
  42. Brown, pp. 268-269; Varley, pp. 135-136; Titsingh, pp. 56-58.
  43. Brown, pp. 268-269; Varley, pp. 135-136; Titsingh, pp. 58-59.
  44. Brown, p. 269-270; Varley, pp. 136-137; Titsingh, pp. 59-60.
  45. Brown, pp. 270-271; Varley, pp. 137-140; Titsingh, pp. 60-63.
  46. Brown, p. 271; Varley, p. 140; Titsingh, pp. 63-65.
  47. Brown, pp. 271-272; Varley, pp. 140-141; Titsingh, pp. 65-67.
  48. Brown, pp. 272-273; Varley, pp. 141-143; Titsingh, pp. 67-73.
  49. Brown, pp. 274-275; Varley, p. 143; Titsingh, pp. 73-75.
  50. Brown, p. 275; Varley, pp. 143-144; Titsingh, pp. 75-78.
  51. Brown, p. 276; Varley, pp. 144-147; Titsingh, pp. 78-81.
  52. Brown, p. 276-277; Varley, pp. 147-148; Titsingh, pp. 81-85.
  53. Brown, pp. 277-279; Varley, pp. 148-150; Titsingh, pp. 86-95.
  54. Brown, pp. 279-280; Varley, p. 151; Titsingh, pp. 96-97.
  55. Brown, pp. 280-282; Varley, pp. 151-164; Titsingh, pp. 97-102.
  56. Brown, p. 282-283; Varley, p. 164; Titsingh, pp. 103-106.
  57. Brown, pp. 283-284; Varley, pp. 164-165; Titsingh, pp. 106-112.
  58. Brown, pp. 285-286; Varley, p. 165; Titsingh, pp. 112-115.
  59. Brown, pp. 286-288; Varley, pp. 166-170; Titsingh, pp. 115-121.
  60. Brown, pp. 288-289; Varley, pp. 170-171; Titsingh, pp. 121-124.
  61. Brown, p. 289; Varley, pp. 171-175; Titsingh, pp. 124-125.
  62. Brown, p. 289-290; Varley, pp. 175-179; Titsingh, pp. 125-129.
  63. Brown, pp. 291-293; Varley, pp. 179-181; Titsingh, pp. 129-134.
  64. Brown, pp. 294-295; Varley, pp. 181-183; Titsingh, pp. 134-138.
  65. Brown, pp. 295-298; Varley, pp. 183-190; Titsingh, pp. 139-142.
  66. Brown, p. 298; Varley, pp. 190-191; Titsingh, pp. 142-143.
  67. Brown, pp. 299-300; Varley, pp. 191-192; Titsingh, pp. 144-148.
  68. Brown, pp. 300-302; Varley, p. 192; Titsingh, pp. 148-149.
  69. Brown, pp. 302-307; Varley, pp. 192-195; Titsingh, pp. 150-154.
  70. Brown, p. 307; Varley, p. 195; Titsingh, pp. 154-155.
  71. Brown, pp. 307-310; Varley, pp. 195-196; Titsingh, pp. 156-160.
  72. Brown, pp. 310-311; Varley, p. 197; Titsingh, pp. 160-162.
  73. Brown, pp. 311-314; Varley, pp. 197-198; Titsingh, pp. 162-166.
  74. Brown, pp. 314-315; Varley, pp. 198-199; Titsingh, pp. 166-168.
  75. Brown, pp. 315-317; Varley, pp. 199-202; Titsingh, pp. 169-171.
  76. Brown, pp. 317-320; Varley, p. 202; Titsingh, pp. 172-178.
  77. Brown, pp. 320-322; Varley, pp. 203-204; Titsingh, pp. 178-181.
  78. Brown, pp. 322-324; Varley, pp. 204-205; Titsingh, pp. 181-185.
  79. Brown, pp. 324-326; Varley, p. 205; Titsingh, pp. 186-188.
  80. Brown, p. 326-327; Varley, pp. 205-208; Titsingh, pp. 188-190.
  81. Brown, pp. 327-329; Varley, pp. 208-212; Titsingh, pp. 191-194.
  82. 82.0 82.1 Brown, pp. 329-330; Varley, p. 212; Titsingh, pp. 194-195.
  83. Brown, pp. 333-334; Varley, pp. 214-215; Titsingh, pp. 200-207.
  84. Brown, pp. 334-339; Varley, pp. 215-220; 207 Titsingh, pp. 207-221.
  85. Brown, pp. 339-341; Varley, pp 220; Titsingh, pp. 221-230.
  86. Brown, pp. 341-343, Varley, pp. 221-223; Titsingh, pp 230-238.
  87. Brown, pp. 343-344; Varley, pp. 223-226; Titsingh, pp. 236-238.
  88. Brown, pp. 344-349; Varley, pp. 226-227; Titsingh, pp. 238-241.
  89. Varley, p. 227; Titsingh, pp. 242-245.
  90. Varley, pp. 228-231; Titsingh, pp. 245-247.
  91. Varley, pp. 231-232; Titsingh, pp. 248-253.
  92. Varley, pp. 232-233; Titsingh, pp. 253-261.
  93. Varley, pp. 233-237; Titsingh, pp. 262-269.
  94. Varley, pp. 237-238; Titsingh, pp. 269-274.
  95. Varley, pp. 238-239; Titsingh, pp. 274-275.
  96. Varley, p. 239; Titsingh, pp. 275-278.
  97. Varley, pp. 239-241; Titsingh, pp. 278-281.
  98. Varley, pp. 241-269; Titsingh, pp. 281-286, and Titsingh, p. 290-294.
  99. Titsingh, p. 286-289.
  100. Titsingh, pp. 294-298.
  101. Titsingh, pp. 298-301.
  102. Titsingh, pp. 302-309.
  103. Titsingh, pp. 310-316.
  104. Titsingh, pp. 317-318.
  105. Varley, pp. 269-270; Titsingh, pp. 295-308.
  106. Titsingh, pp. 308-316.
  107. Titsingh, p. 316-320.
  108. Titsingh, pp. 320-327.
  109. Titsingh, pp. 327-331.
  110. Titsingh, pp. 331-351.
  111. Titsingh, pp. 352-364.
  112. Titsingh, pp. 364-372.
  113. Titsingh, pp. 372-382.
  114. Titsingh, pp. 382-402.
  115. Titsingh, pp. 402-409.
  116. Titsingh, pp. 410-411.
  117. pp. 411-412.
  118. Titsingh, pp. 412-413.
  119. Titsingh, p. 413.
  120. Titsingh, pp. 414-415.
  121. Titsingh, pp. 415-416.
  122. Titsingh, pp. 416-417.
  123. Titsingh, pp. 417-418.
  124. Titsingh, pp. 418-419.
  125. Titsingh, p. 419.
  126. Titsingh, pp. 419-420.
  127. Titsingh, pp. 420-421.
  128. Titsingh, p. 421.